Kemboja

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Kerajaan Kemboja
Cambodia5-trans.png
Preah Réachéanachâk Kampuchea
Flag Royal Arms
Cogan kata :
CambodiaMotto.svg
Negara, Agama, Raja
Lagu :
Nokor Reach
Royal Kingdom
Lokasi Kemboja (hijau) di ASEAN (kelabu gelap) - [Legend]
Lokasi   Kemboja    (Hijau)

di ASEAN    (Kelabu gelap) - [ Legend ]

Modal
(Dan bandar raya terbesar)
Phnom Penh
11 ° 33'N 104 ° 55'E / 11,55 ° U 104,917 ° E / 11,55; 104,917
Bahasa rasmi (s) Khmer
Skrip rasmi Khmer script
Demonym Khmer
Kerajaan Kesatuan demokrasi berparlimen dan monarki Perlembagaan
- King Norodom Sihamoni
- Perdana Menteri Hun Sen ( CPP )
Badan Perundangan Parlimen
- Rumah Atas Senat
- Rumah yang lebih rendah National Assembly
Pembentukan
- Funan Kingdom 68
- Chenla Kingdom 550
- Khmer Empire 802
- Penjajahan Perancis 1863
- Kemerdekaan daripada Perancis November 9, 1953
- Monarki pulih September 24, 1993
Kawasan
- Jumlah 181.035 km 2 ( 88 )
69.898 batu persegi
- Air (%) 2,5
Penduduk
- 2011 anggaran 14805358 [1] ( 65 )
- 2008 banci 13388910
- Ketumpatan 81.8/km 2 ( 118 )
211.8/sq km
KDNK ( PPP ) 2010 anggaran
- Jumlah $ 30,181 bilion [2]
- Per kapita $ 2470 [2]
KDNK (nominal) 2010 anggaran
- Jumlah $ 11,629 bilion [2]
- Per kapita $ 1024 [2]
Gini (2007) 43 [3] (medium)
HDI (2010) meningkatkan 0,494 [4] (sederhana) ( 124 )
Mata Wang Riel ( KHR )
Zon waktu ( UTC 7)
Pemacu pada hak
ISO 3166 kod KH
Internet TLD . Kh
Kod panggilan 855

Kemboja ( Dengar i / k æ m b o? d i ? / ; [5] Khmer : Kampuchea, IPA: [k?mpuci?] ), secara rasmi dikenali sebagai Kerajaan Kemboja, adalah sebuah negara yang terletak di bahagian selatan dari Semenanjung Indochina di Asia Tenggara . Dengan daratan jumlah 181.035 kilometer persegi (69.898 batu persegi), bersempadan dengan Thailand ke barat laut, Laos ke timur, Vietnam ke timur, dan Teluk Thailand di barat daya.

Dengan penduduk lebih 14,8 juta, Kemboja 69 negara paling ramai penduduk di dunia . Agama rasmi adalah agama Buddha Theravada yang diamalkan oleh kira-kira 92% daripada penduduk Kemboja. Kumpulan-kumpulan minoriti negara termasuk Vietnam , Cina , Chams dan 30 pelbagai suku kaum bukit . [6] modal dan bandar raya terbesar Phnom Penh , politik, ekonomi, pusat kebudayaan Kemboja.

Kerajaan raja berperlembagaan dengan Norodom Sihamoni raja dipilih dipilih oleh Majlis Takhta Diraja sebagai ketua negara. Ketua kerajaan Hun Sen , yang kini merupakan pemimpin paling lama berkhidmat di Asia Tenggara dan telah memerintah Kemboja selama lebih 25 tahun .

Pada tahun 802 AD Jayavarman II mengisytiharkan dirinya raja yang menandakan permulaan Empayar Khmer . Raja berturut-turut berkembang yang menandakan kuasa besar Khmer empayar dan kekayaan yang menguasai sebahagian besar Asia Tenggara selama lebih 600 tahun. Kemboja diperintah sebagai orang suruhan antara jirannya, sehingga ia dijajah oleh Perancis pada pertengahan abad ke-19. Kemboja mencapai kemerdekaan pada tahun 1953. Perang Vietnam diperluaskan ke Kemboja, yang membawa kepada Khmer Rouge , yang mengambil Phnom Penh pada tahun 1975. Kemboja muncul kembali beberapa tahun kemudian dalam sosialistik sfera pengaruh sebagai Republik Rakyat Kampuchea sehingga tahun 1993 . Selepas bertahun-tahun pengasingan, negara yang dilanda peperangan telah bersatu semula di bawah pemerintahan beraja pada tahun 1993.

Pembinaan semula dari dekad perang saudara , Kemboja telah melihat kemajuan yang pesat dalam ekonomi dan bidang sumber manusia . Negara ini mempunyai satu rekod ekonomi terbaik di Asia, dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang kian berkembang purata 6.0% untuk 10 tahun yang lalu. Tekstil yang kukuh, pertanian, pembinaan, pakaian, dan sektor pelancongan membawa pelaburan asing dan perdagangan antarabangsa. [7 Pada tahun 2005, minyak dan deposit gas asli telah ditemui di perairan wilayah Kemboja dalam dan pengekstrakan sekali komersil bermula pada tahun 2011, itu hasil minyak boleh mendalam menjejaskan ekonomi Kemboja. [8]

Kandungan

[ sunting ] Etimologi

Nama rasmi negara Kerajaan Kemboja, yang disebut dalam Khmer sebagai Preah Réachéanachâk Kampuchea. Secara etimologi, komponen:-Preah ("suci");-Reachea (dari bahasa Sanskrit raja , bererti "raja, raja, alam");-ana-(dari Pali Ana, "pihak berkuasa, arahan, kuasa", sendiri dari Sanskrit ?jñ?, erti yang sama)-Chak (dari bahasa Sanskrit chakra yang bermaksud "wheel", simbol kuasa dan pemerintahan).

Dalam bahasa Khmer , negara itu dinamakan Kampuchea ( Khmer : ???????). Kampuchea merupakan terbitan Sanskrit jangka Kambojade?a ( Sanskrit : ?????????). Orang-orang Khmer sering merujuk kepada negara mereka menggunakan borang sopan Prâteh Kampuchea (Khmer: ?????????????) yang secara harfiah bermaksud "Negara Kemboja". Kemboja juga yang paling sering menggunakan perkataan yang lebih basahan "Srok Khmer" ( Khmer: ??????????) yang diterjemahkan kepada "Tanah Khmers" .

Nama Inggeris, "Kemboja" berasal dari "Cambodge" Perancis.

[ sunting ] Sejarah

[ sunting ] Pra-sejarah

Satu mangkuk emas-teratai sejak untuk 1200CE.
Khmer tentera pergi berperang melawan Cham , dari relief di Bayon

Bukti jarang untuk Pleistosen pendudukan manusia yang hadir hari Kemboja kuarza dan kuarzit alat batu kelikir yang ditemui di teres di sepanjang Sungai Mekong, di Treng disengat dan Kratié wilayah, dan di Provinsi Kampot, tetapi dating mereka adalah tidak boleh dipercayai . [9 ]

Beberapa bukti arkeologi yang sedikit menunjukkan masyarakat pemburu- pengumpul didiami Kemboja semasa Holocene: tapak arkeologi yang paling kuno Kemboja dianggap gua L'Aang Spean , Battambang Province, yang tergolong dalam apa yang dipanggil Hoabinhian tempoh. Penggalian di lapisan yang lebih rendah menghasilkan siri tarikh radiokarbon 6000 SM. [9] [10]

Lapisan atas di tapak yang sama memberikan keterangan mengenai peralihan kepada Neolitik , yang mengandungi seramik tembikar terawal bertarikh di Kemboja [11 ]

Rekod arkeologi bagi tempoh antara Holocene dan Zaman Besi kekal sama terhad. Lain-lain tapak prasejarah tarikh yang agak tidak menentu Samrong Sen (tidak jauh dari ibu kota purba Oudong), di mana siasatan yang pertama bermula pada tahun 1877, [12] dan Phum Snay, di wilayah utara Banteay Meanchey. [13] artifak prasejarah sering dijumpai semasa aktiviti perlombongan di Ratanakiri . [9]

Walau bagaimanapun, bukti yang paling cemerlang prasejarah di Kemboja mungkin pelbagai "surat pekeliling kerja -kerja tanah " , yang ditemui di tanah merah berhampiran Memot dan di rantau ini bersebelahan Vietnam pada akhir tahun 1950-an. Fungsi dan umur mereka masih dibahaskan, tetapi sesetengah daripada mereka mungkin tarikh dari 2 milenium SM sekurang-kurangnya. [14] [15]

Peristiwa penting dalam prasejarah Kemboja penembusan perlahan petani padi pertama dari utara, yang bermula pada 3 lewat milenium SM. [16]

Besi telah bekerja oleh kira-kira 500 SM, dengan sokongan bukti yang datang dari Dataran Tinggi Khorat, di Thailand hari moden. Di Kemboja, sesetengah penempatan Zaman Besi yang ditemui di bawahnya beberapa kuil Angkorian, seperti Baksei Chamkrong . Lain-lain kerja-kerja tanah bulat, seperti Lovea, beberapa kilometer barat laut Angkor. Pengkebumian, lebih kaya, memberi keterangan kepada peningkatan ketersediaan makanan dan perdagangan (walaupun pada jarak jauh: dalam abad ke-4 SM hubungan perdagangan dengan India telah dibuka). Dan kewujudan struktur sosial dan organisasi buruh [ 16]

[ sunting ] Pra-Angkorian dan Angkorian era

Semasa abad ke-3, 4, dan 5, negeri - negeri Indianised Funan dan Chenla coalesced di masa kini Kemboja dan barat daya Vietnam. Selama lebih daripada 2,000 tahun, Kemboja menyerap pengaruh dari India , lulus mereka kepada tamadun Tenggara Asia yang lain yang kini Thailand dan Laos. [17] Empayar Khmer berkembang di kawasan tersebut dari 9 hingga abad ke-13. [18] Di sekitar abad ke-13, agama Buddha Theravada diperkenalkan ke kawasan ini melalui rahib dari Sri Lanka [19] Sejak itu pada Theravada Buddhisme berkembang dan akhirnya menjadi agama yang popular .

Kerajaan Khmer adalah empayar terbesar di Asia Tenggara pada abad ke-12 dan ia masih sangat berkuasa. Empayar merosot lagi kekal berkuasa di rantau ini sehingga abad ke-15. Pusat empayar kuasa Angkor , di mana siri ibu telah dibina semasa kemuncaknya empayar. Pada tahun 2007 satu pasukan antarabangsa penyelidik yang menggunakan gambar-gambar satelit dan lain-lain teknik moden membuat kesimpulan bahawa Angkor telah pra-industri bandar yang terbesar di dunia dengan berpencar bandar 1.150 batu persegi . [20] Bandar ini dapat menyokong penduduk sehingga satu juta orang [21] dan Angkor Wat , kuil yang paling terkenal dan terbaik dipelihara agama di tapak, adalah peringatan sejarah Kemboja sebagai kuasa serantau yang utama.

[ sunting ] umur Jahat Kemboja

Kota kuno daripada Longvek

Selepas beberapa lama perang dengan kerajaan-kerajaan jiran, Angkor dipecat oleh United Ayutthaya dan ditinggalkan pada tahun 1432 kerana kegagalan ekologi dan kerosakan infrastruktur . [22 ] [23 ] Ini membawa kepada tempoh genangan ekonomi, sosial, dan budaya apabila hal ehwal dalaman kerajaan datang semakin di bawah kawalan negara-negara jiran. Pada masa ini, kegemaran Khmer untuk bangunan monumen telah berhenti. Agama seperti Buddhisme Mahayana dan Hindu kultus dewa-raja yang lebih tua telah digantikan oleh agama Buddha Theravada .

Mahkamah bergerak modal untuk Longvek di mana kerajaan cuba untuk mendapatkan semula kemuliaan melalui perdagangan maritim . Portugis dan Bahasa Sepanyol pelancong menyifatkan bandar sebagai tempat kekayaan berkembang dan perdagangan asing . Percubaan adalah bersifat sementara Walau bagaimanapun, sebagai peperangan yang berterusan dengan Ayutthaya dan Vietnam menyebabkan kehilangan lebih banyak wilayah dan Longvek ditawan dalam 1594. Dengan menangkap Longvek oleh Siam , negara tidak pernah pulih sepenuhnya . Sewaktu tiga abad yang akan datang, kerajaan Khmer ganti sebagai negeri negeri di bawah taklukan Kerajaan Ayutthaya dan raja-raja Vietnam, serta bersifat sementara tempoh kemerdekaan relatif.

A Khmer modal yang baru ditubuhkan di Odong selatan Longvek, tetapi raja-raja hanya boleh hidup dengan memasuki apa yang bernilai kepada orang suruhan hubungan dengan Siam dan Vietnam . Perjuangan yang diperbaharui antara Siam dan Vietnam untuk mengawal Kemboja pada abad kesembilan belas dalam tempoh apabila pegawai-pegawai Vietnam cuba untuk memaksa Khmers untuk mengamalkan adat Vietnam . Ini membawa kepada beberapa pemberontakan menentang Vietnam. Perang Siam-Vietnam (1841-1845) berakhir dengan perjanjian untuk meletakkan negara ini di bawah kekuasaan raja bersama . Ini kemudiannya membawa kepada menandatangani perjanjian untuk Perlindungan Perancis Kemboja oleh Raja Norodom I .

Map of Indochina Perancis

[ sunting ] penjajahan Perancis

Raja Norodom dikreditkan untuk menyelamatkan Kemboja daripada hilang sama sekali

Raja Norodom pada tahun 1863 , yang telah dipasang oleh Thailand, [24] meminta perlindungan Perancis dari ketegangan selepas meningkat Thailand dan Vietnam antara mereka. Pada tahun 1867, raja Thai menandatangani perjanjian dengan Perancis, isi kekuasaan lebih Kemboja dalam pertukaran untuk kawalan Battambang dan Siem Reap wilayah yang secara rasminya menjadi sebahagian daripada Thailand . Wilayah telah menyerahkan kembali ke Kemboja melalui perjanjian sempadan antara Perancis dan Thailand pada tahun 1906.

Kemboja terus sebagai negeri naungan Perancis 1863-1953, yang ditadbir sebagai sebahagian daripada tanah jajahan Indochina Perancis , walaupun diduduki oleh Empayar Jepun dari 1941 hingga 1945. [25] Antara 1874 dan 1962, jumlah penduduk meningkat daripada kira-kira 946,000 kepada 5.7 juta. [26] Selepas kematian Raja Norodom pada tahun 1904, Perancis memanipulasi pilihan raja, dan Sisowath, saudara Norodom, diletakkan di atas takhta. Takhta menjadi kosong pada tahun 1941 dengan kematian Monivong, anak Sisowath, dan Perancis melewati anak, Monivong, Monireth, rasa dia terlalu bebas yang berfikiran. Sebaliknya, Norodom Sihanouk , ibu grand-anak raja Sisowath ditabalkan. Pemikiran Sihanouk muda Perancis akan mudah untuk dikawal. [25] Mereka salah, bagaimanapun, dan di bawah pemerintahan Raja Norodom Sihanouk, Kemboja mencapai kemerdekaan dari Perancis pada November 9, 1953 . [25 ]

[ sunting ] Kemerdekaan dan Perang Vietnam

Kemboja menjadi raja berperlembagaan di bawah Raja Norodom Sihanouk. Apabila Indochina Perancis telah diberikan kemerdekaan, Kemboja hilang kawalan rasmi ke atas Delta Mekong kerana ia telah dianugerahkan ke Vietnam . [ rujukan? ] Kawasan ini telah dikawal oleh Vietnam sejak 1698 dengan Raja Chey Chettha II yang memberi kebenaran Vietnam untuk menetap di dekad kawasan sebelum ini. [25]

Norodom Sihanouk dan Mao Zedong pada tahun 1956

Pada tahun 1955, Sihanouk turun takhta memihak kepada bapanya untuk melibatkan diri dalam politik dan dipilih sebagai Perdana Menteri. Apabila berlaku kematian bapanya pada tahun 1960, Sihanouk sekali lagi menjadi ketua negara, dengan mengambil gelaran Putera. Sebagai Perang Vietnam berkembang, Sihanouk mengguna pakai dasar rasmi berkecuali dalam Perang Dingin , walaupun dia secara meluas dianggap bersimpati kepada perjuangan komunis. Ketika melawat Beijing pada tahun 1970, beliau digulingkan oleh rampasan kuasa tentera yang diketuai oleh Perdana Menteri General Lon Nol dan Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak, yang mendapat sokongan Amerika Syarikat. Raja menggesa pengikutnya untuk membantu dalam menumbangkan kerajaan ini, mempercepatkan permulaan perang saudara . [27] Soon pemberontak Khmer Rouge mula menggunakan beliau untuk meraih sokongan.

Antara tahun 1969 dan 1973, Republik Vietnam tentera dan tentera AS telah dibom dan ringkas menyerang Kemboja dalam usaha untuk mengganggu Viet Cong dan Khmer Rouge . [28 ] Kira-kira dua juta rakyat Kemboja telah dibuat pelarian oleh perang dan melarikan diri ke Phnom Penh. Anggaran bilangan Kemboja terbunuh semasa kempen pengeboman amat berbeza, sebagai pandangan kesan pengeboman. Amerika Syarikat Tentera Udara Ketujuh berhujah bahawa pengeboman menghalang kejatuhan Phnom Penh pada tahun 1973 dengan membunuh 16.000 25.500 Khmer Rouge pejuang mengepung bandar. [29] Walau bagaimanapun, wartawan William Shawcross dan Kemboja pakar Milton Osborne , David P. Chandler dan Ben Kiernan berhujah bahawa pengeboman yang memandu petani untuk menyertai Khmer Rouge. [30] Kemboja pakar Craig Etcheson berhujah bahawa Khmer Rouge "akan menang anyway", walaupun tanpa pengambilan campur tangan Amerika Syarikat (AS) memandu walaupun AS diam-diam memainkan peranan utama di sebalik jalan utama Khmer Rouge. [31]

[ sunting ] rejim Khmer Rouge

Seperti Perang Vietnam berakhir, draf laporan USAID diperhatikan bahawa negara ini menghadapi kebuluran pada tahun 1975, dengan 75% haiwan draf dimusnahkan, dan bahawa menanam padi untuk tuaian seterusnya perlu dilakukan "oleh buruh keras orang-orang yang serius kekurangan gizi ". Laporan itu meramalkan bahawa

"Tanpa makanan luar dan bantuan peralatan secara besar-besaran akan kebuluran yang meluas antara sekarang dan akan datang Februari ... Hamba buruh dan catuan kebuluran bagi setengah orang negara (mungkin yang paling berat di kalangan orang-orang yang menyokong republik itu) akan menjadi satu keperluan yang kejam ini serba kekurangan dan penderitaan tahun, dan umum akan sepanjang tempoh dua atau tiga tahun akan datang sebelum Kemboja boleh mendapatkan kembali sara diri " . [32 ]

Khmer Rouge tiba di Phnom Penh dan mengambil alih kuasa pada tahun 1975. Rejim, yang diketuai oleh Pol Pot , menukar nama rasmi negara untuk Demokratik Kampuchea . Mereka segera dipindahkan bandar-bandar dan menghantar ke seluruh penduduk pada perarakan yang dipaksa untuk projek-projek kerja-kerja luar bandar. Mereka cuba untuk membina semula pertanian di negara ini pada model abad ke-11, dibuang perubatan Barat, dan kuil-kuil yang dimusnahkan, perpustakaan, dan apa-apa jua yang dianggap Barat. Sekurang-kurangnya satu juta rakyat Kemboja, daripada jumlah penduduk seramai 8 juta, meninggal dunia dari hukuman mati, kelaparan, terlalu banyak pekerjaan dan penyakit . [33 ]

Anggaran berapa ramai orang yang telah dibunuh oleh pelbagai rejim Khmer Rouge dari kira-kira satu hingga tiga juta; angka yang paling biasa yang dipetik ialah dua juta (kira-kira satu pertiga daripada penduduk ) [34 ] [35 ] era ini menimbulkan istilah Killing Fields , dan penjara Tuol Sleng menjadi terkenal dengan sejarah pembunuhan besar- besaran. Beratus-ratus ribu melarikan diri melalui sempadan ke negara jiran Thailand. Rejim tidak seimbang sasaran etnik minoriti kumpulan. Cham umat Islam mengalami serius melakukan pembersihan dalaman dengan seberapa banyak yang separuh daripada penduduk mereka dihapuskan. [36]

Pada akhir tahun 1960-an, kira-kira 425,000 etnik Cina tinggal di Kemboja, tetapi menjelang tahun 1984, disebabkan oleh pembunuhan beramai-ramai Khmer Rouge dan penghijrahan, hanya kira-kira 61.400 Cina kekal di negara ini. [37] penghantaran balik paksa pada tahun 1970 dan kematian semasa era Khmer Rouge mengurangkan penduduk Vietnam di Kemboja dari antara 250,000 dan 300,000 pada tahun 1969 yang dilaporkan 56.000 pada tahun 1984. [26] Profesional seperti doktor, peguam dan guru-guru, juga disasarkan. Menurut Robert D. Kaplan , "cermin mata adalah seperti maut sebagai bintang kuning "kerana mereka dilihat sebagai tanda intelektualisme. [33]

[ sunting ] Akhir Khmer Rouge dan peralihan

Stupa yang menempatkan tengkorak yang dibunuh oleh Khmer Rouge di Choeung Ek

Pada bulan November 1978, tentera Vietnam menceroboh Kemboja . [38] Republik Rakyat Kampuchea , Pro-Soviet negeri yang diketuai oleh Barisan Penyelamat, satu kumpulan berhaluan kiri Kemboja yang tidak berpuas hati dengan Khmer Rouge, telah ditubuhkan. Pada tahun 1981, kerajaan dalam buangan telah dibentuk dari tiga kumpulan, yang disebut sebagai Kerajaan Campuran Demokratik Kampuchea, atau CGDK . Ini terdiri daripada Khmer Rouge, golongan pendukung raja yang diketuai oleh Sihanouk, dan Moro National People Khmer . Khmer Rouge wakil ke Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu, Thiounn Prasith, dikekalkan. [39] [40]

Sepanjang tahun 1980-an Khmer Rouge, terutamanya yang dibekalkan oleh China , [41 ] terus untuk mengawal banyak negara dan menyerang wilayah tidak di bawah penguasaan mereka . Serangan ini, yang membawa kepada sekatan ekonomi [42 ] oleh Amerika Syarikat (AS) dan sekutunya, yang dibuat pembinaan semula hampir mustahil dan meninggalkan negara yang amat miskin.

Usaha terhadap proses damai bermula di Paris pada tahun 1989 di bawah Negeri Kemboja, memuncak dua tahun kemudian pada bulan Oktober 1991 dalam penyelesaian damai yang komprehensif . PBB telah diberi mandat untuk menguatkuasakan gencatan senjata dan berurusan dengan orang-orang pelarian dan perlucutan senjata yang dikenali sebagai Pihak Berkuasa Peralihan Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu ( PBB) di Kemboja (UNTAC) . [43]

Pada tahun 1993, Norodom Sihanouk telah dipulihkan sebagai Raja Kemboja , membuat Kemboja hanya di dunia postcommunist negara yang mengembalikan pemerintahan beraja sebagai sistem kerajaan. Kestabilan yang ditubuhkan berikutan konflik telah digegarkan pada tahun 1997 oleh satu rampasan kuasa [44 ] tetapi sebaliknya kekal di tempat . Dalam tahun-tahun kebelakangan ini, usaha-usaha pembinaan semula telah maju dan membawa kepada kestabilan politik dalam bentuk demokrasi pelbagai parti di bawah raja berperlembagaan . [45] Pada bulan Julai 2010 Kang Kek Iew anggota Khmer Rouge yang pertama yang didapati bersalah atas jenayah perang dan jenayah terhadap kemanusiaan dalam peranan sebagai bekas Komandan kem penghapusan S21. Dia dijatuhi hukuman 35 tahun di dalam penjara. [46]

[ sunting ] Politik

[ sunting ] Kerajaan

Politik kebangsaan di Kemboja mengambil tempat dalam rangka perlembagaan negara 1993. Kerajaan raja berperlembagaan yang dikendalikan sebagai satu demokrasi berparlimen wakil . Perdana Menteri Kemboja , jawatan yang dipegang oleh Hun Sen sejak tahun 1985, adalah ketua kerajaan, manakala Raja Kemboja ( kini Norodom Sihamoni) adalah ketua negara . Perdana Menteri yang dilantik oleh raja, atas nasihat dan dengan kelulusan Dewan Negara

Perdana Menteri dan dilantik menteri menjalankan kuasa eksekutif manakala kuasa perundangan yang dikongsi oleh eksekutif dan terdiri daripada dua dewan Parlimen Kemboja , yang terdiri daripada rumah yang lebih rendah, Dewan Negara atau Radhsphea dan rumah atas, Senat atau Sénat. Ahli-ahli Dewan 123 tempat duduk dipilih melalui sistem perwakilan berkadar dan berkhidmat selama tempoh maksimum lima tahun. Dewan Negara mempunyai 61 kerusi, dua yang dilantik oleh raja dan dua yang lain oleh Dewan Negara. Senator berkhidmat lima penggal tahun.

Pada 14 Oktober, 2004, Raja Norodom Sihamoni telah dipilih oleh takhta khas sembilan anggota majlis, sebahagian daripada proses pemilihan yang cepat dimasukkan ke dalam tempat selepas pelepasan Raja Norodom Sihanouk seminggu sebelum. Pemilihan Sihamoni telah disahkan oleh Perdana Menteri Hun Sen dan Speaker Dewan Negara Putera Norodom Ranariddh (separuh saudara raja dan penasihat ketua semasa), kedua-dua ahli majlis takhta. Beliau ditabalkan di Phnom Penh pada 29 Oktober, 2004.

Parti Rakyat Kemboja ( CPP) merupakan parti pemerintah utama di Kemboja. CPP menguasai dewan rendah dan menengah atas parlimen, dengan 73 kerusi di dalam Dewan Negara dan 43 kerusi dalam Senat. Pembangkang Parti Sam Rainsy adalah parti kedua terbesar di Kemboja dengan 26 kerusi di dalam Dewan Negara dan 2 di Senat.

[ sunting ] Ketenteraan

Pegawai-pegawai Tentera Laut Diraja Kemboja mematuhi pihak penerbangan semasa Kemboja-AS Maritim Latihan 2011 .

Tentera Diraja Kemboja , Angkatan Laut Diraja Kemboja , Royal Air Force Kemboja dan Royal Gendarmerie secara kolektif membentuk Angkatan Bersenjata Diraja Kemboja, di bawah arahan Kementerian Pertahanan Negara, yang dipengerusikan oleh Perdana Menteri Kemboja. Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Raja Norodom Sihamoni Komander Tertinggi Angkatan Bersenjata Diraja Kemboja (RCAF), dan negara Perdana Menteri Hun Sen berkesan memegang jawatan komander utama .

Pengenalan struktur perintah yang disemak semula awal pada tahun 2000 adalah permulaan yang utama kepada penyusunan semula tentera Kemboja. Ini menyaksikan pertahanan kementerian bentuk tiga jabatan am rendah bertanggungjawab untuk logistik dan kewangan, bahan-bahan dan perkhidmatan teknikal dan perkhidmatan pertahanan di bawah Ibu Pejabat Perintah Tinggi (HCHQ).

Menteri Pertahanan Negara Ketua Tea Banh . Banh telah berkhidmat sebagai Menteri Pertahanan sejak 1979. Setiausaha Negara bagi Pertahanan Chay Ivor Yun dan Por Bun Sreu. The Commander-in Ketua baru yang RCAF dan telah digantikan oleh Ketua timbalannya Pol Saroeun, yang setia masa yang lama Perdana Menteri Hun Sen Panglima Angkatan Tentera Jeneral MEAs Sophea dan Ketua Turus Tentera Chea Cadangan.

Pada tahun 2010, Angkatan Bersenjata Diraja Kemboja terdiri daripada kira-kira 315,000 kakitangan. Jumlah perbelanjaan tentera Kemboja berada pada tahap 3% daripada KDNK negara. Gendarmerie Diraja Kemboja jumlah lebih daripada 7000 kakitangan. Tugas-tugas awam termasuk menyediakan keselamatan dan ketenteraman awam, untuk menyiasat dan mencegah jenayah terancang, keganasan dan lain-lain kumpulan yang ganas untuk melindungi negeri dan harta swasta, untuk membantu dan membantu orang awam dan pasukan kecemasan yang lain dalam hal kecemasan, bencana alam, pergolakan sivil dan konflik bersenjata.

[ sunting ] Foreign Relations

Duta Thay Vanna menyampaikan watikah pelantikannya kepada Presiden Russia Dmitry Medvedev on October 18, 2010.
Setiausaha Negara Amerika Syarikat Hillary Clinton mengadakan pertemuan dengan Menteri Luar Hor Namhong di New York City on September 28, 2009

Hubungan luar negara Kemboja yang dikendalikan oleh Kementerian Luar Negeri di bawah HE Hor Namhong .

Kemboja adalah ahli Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu (PBB), Bank Dunia dan Tabung Kewangan Antarabangsa (IMF) . Ia adalah anggota Bank Pembangunan Asia (ADB), ASEAN , dan menyertai WTO pada 13 Oktober 2004. Pada tahun 2005, Kemboja menghadiri perasmian Sidang Kemuncak Asia Timur di Malaysia . On November 23, 2009, Kemboja dikembalikan semula keahlian kepada Agensi Tenaga Atom Antarabangsa (IAEA) . Kemboja mula-mula menjadi ahli IAEA pada Februari 6, 1958 tetapi menarik diri keahlian pada 26 Mac, 2003. [47]

Kemboja telah menubuhkan hubungan diplomatik dengan negara-negara yang banyak; kerajaan melaporkan dua puluh kedutaan di negara ini [48 ] termasuk kebanyakan negara-negara jiran Asia dan pemain penting semasa rundingan damai Paris, termasuk Amerika Syarikat, Australia, Kanada, China, Kesatuan Eropah (EU), Jepun, dan Rusia. [49] Hasilnya hubungan antarabangsa, pelbagai badan-badan kebajikan dibantu dengan sosial, ekonomi dan keperluan infrastruktur awam .

Dalam tahun-tahun kebelakangan ini, hubungan dua hala antara Amerika Syarikat dan Kemboja telah diperkukuhkan. AS menyokong usaha-usaha di Kemboja untuk memerangi keganasan, membina institusi demokrasi, menggalakkan hak asasi manusia, memupuk pembangunan ekonomi, menghapuskan rasuah, mencapai perakaunan sepenuhnya untuk rakyat Amerika hilang dari era Perang Vietnam , dan membawa ke muka pengadilan orang-orang yang paling bertanggungjawab untuk serius pelanggaran undang-undang kemanusiaan antarabangsa yang dilakukan di bawah rejim Khmer Rouge . Kepentingan geopolitik China di Kemboja berubah dengan ketara dengan akhir Perang Dingin. Ia mengekalkan pengaruh yang agak besar, termasuk hubungan rapat dengan bekas Raja Norodom Sihanouk , ahli-ahli kanan Kerajaan Kemboja, dan masyarakat etnik Cina di Kemboja. Terdapat tetap pertukaran peringkat tinggi antara kedua-dua negara. Jepun telah menjadi penyumbang penting kepada pemulihan dan pembinaan semula Kemboja sejak Lembaga Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu (PBB) yang berprofil tinggi Peralihan (UNTAC) misi dan pilihan raya pada tahun 1993. Jepun yang disediakan kira-kira AS $ 1.2 bilion dalam jumlah bantuan pembangunan luar negara (ODA) dalam tempoh sejak tahun 1992 dan kekal negara penderma utama Kemboja.

Walaupun pecah ganas tahun 1970-an dan 80-an telah berlalu, beberapa pertikaian sempadan antara Kemboja dan jirannya berterusan. Terdapat percanggahan pendapat di atas beberapa pulau luar pesisir dan bahagian sempadan dengan Vietnam dan undefined sempadan maritim dan kawasan-kawasan sempadan dengan Thailand. Kedua-dua tentera Kemboja dan Thailand bertempur lebih kuil Preah Vihear , yang dituntut oleh kedua-dua negara, yang membawa kepada kemerosotan dalam hubungan. Mahkamah Keadilan Antarabangsa pada tahun 1962 dianugerahkan kuil ke Kemboja tetapi adalah jelas tanah sekeliling. Kedua-dua negara menyalahkan lain untuk melepaskan tembakan pertama dan menafikan memasuki wilayah lain.

[ sunting ] Geografi

Dângrêk Mountains di Northern Kemboja

Kemboja mempunyai keluasan 181.035 kilometer persegi (69.898 batu persegi) dan terletak sepenuhnya di dalam kawasan tropika, di antara garis lintang 10 ° dan 15 ° U, dan longitudes 102 ° dan 108 E ° . It borders Thailand to the north and west, Laos to the northeast, and Vietnam to the east and southeast. It has a 443-kilometer (275 mi) coastline along the Gulf of Thailand .

Cambodia's landscape is characterized by a low-lying central plain that is surrounded by uplands and low mountains and includes the Tonle Sap (Great Lake) and the upper reaches of the Mekong River delta. Extending outward from this central region are transitional plains, thinly forested and rising to elevations of about 650 feet (200 metres) above sea level. To the north the Cambodian plain abuts a sandstone escarpment, which forms a southward-facing cliff stretching more than 200 miles (320 km) from west to east and rising abruptly above the plain to heights of 600 to 1,800 feet (180 to 550 metres). This escarpment marks the southern limit of the Dângrêk Mountains .

Flowing south through the country's eastern regions is the Mekong River. East of the Mekong the transitional plains gradually merge with the eastern highlands, a region of forested mountains and high plateaus that extend into Laos and Vietnam. In southwestern Cambodia two distinct upland blocks, the Krâvanh Mountains and the Dâmrei Mountains , form another highland region that covers much of the land area between the Tonle Sap and the Gulf of Thailand . In this remote and largely uninhabited area, Phnom Aural , Cambodia's highest peak, rises to an elevation of 5,949 feet (1,813 metres). The southern coastal region adjoining the Gulf of Thailand is a narrow lowland strip, heavily wooded and sparsely populated, which is isolated from the central plain by the southwestern highlands.

The most distinctive geographical feature is the inundations of the Tonle Sap (Great Lake), measuring about 2,590 square kilometers (1,000 sq mi) during the dry season and expanding to about 24,605 square kilometers (9,500 sq mi) during the rainy season. This densely populated plain, which is devoted to wet rice cultivation, is the heartland of Cambodia. Much of this area has been designated as a biosphere reserve .

[ edit ] Climate

Cambodia's climate, like that of the rest of Southeast Asia, is dominated by monsoons , which are known as tropical wet and dry because of the distinctly marked seasonal differences.

Cambodia has a temperature range from 21 to 35 °C (69.8 to 95 °F) and experiences tropical monsoons. Southwest monsoons blow inland bringing moisture-laden winds from the Gulf of Thailand and Indian Ocean from May to October. The northeast monsoon ushers in the dry season, which lasts from November to March. The country experiences the heaviest precipitation from September to October with the driest period occurring from January to February.

Cambodia has two distinct seasons. The rainy season, which runs from May to October, can see temperatures drop to 22 °C (71.6 °F) and is generally accompanied with high humidity. The dry season lasts from November to April when temperatures can rise up to 40 °C (104 °F) around April. Disastrous flooding occurred in 2001 and again in 2002. Almost every year there is some degree of flooding.

[ edit ] Wildlife

Cambodia has a wide variety of plants and animals. There are 212 mammal species, 536 bird species, 240 reptile species, 850 freshwater fish species (Tonle Sap Lake area), and 435 marine fish species. Much of this biodiversity is contained around the Tonle Sap Lake and the surrounding biosphere. [ 50 ] The Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve is a unique ecological phenomenon surrounding the Tonle Sap. It encompasses the lake and nine provinces: Kampong Thom , Siem Reap , Battambang , Pursat , Kampong Chhnang , Banteay Meanchey , Pailin , Oddar Meanchey and Preah Vihear . In 1997, it was successfully nominated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve . [ 51 ] Other key habitats include the dry forest of Mondolkiri and Ratanakiri provinces and the Cardamom Mountains ecosystem, including Bokor National Park, Botum-Sakor National Park , and the Phnom Aural and Phnom Samkos wildlife sanctuaries.

The rate of deforestation in Cambodia is one of the highest in the world. Cambodia's primary rainforest cover fell from over 70% in 1969 to just 31% in 2007. In total, Cambodia lost 25,000 square kilometres (9,700 sq mi) of forest between 1990 and 2005—3,340 km 2 (1,290 sq mi) of which was primary forest. Since 2007, less than 3,220 km 2 (1,243 sq mi) of primary forest remain with the result that the future sustainability of the forest reserves of Cambodia is under severe threat, with illegal loggers looking to generate revenue. [ 52 ]

[ edit ] Administrative divisions

The capital ( reach thani ) and provinces ( khaet ) of Cambodia are first-level administrative divisions. Cambodia is divided into 23 provinces including the capital.

Municipalities and districts are the second-level administrative divisions of Cambodia. The provinces are subdivided into 159 districts and 26 municipalities. The districts and municipalities in turn are further divided into communes ( khum ) and quarters ( sangkat ).

Province Capital Area (km²) Population
Banteay Meanchey Sisophon 6,679 0, 678,033
Battambang Battambang 11,702 0, 1,036,523
Kampong Cham Kampong Cham 9,799 0, 1,680,694
Kampong Chhnang Kampong Chhnang 5,521 0, 472,616
Kampong Speu Kampong Speu 7,017 0, 716,517
Kampong Thom Kampong Thom 13,814 0, 708,398
Kampot Kampot 4,873 0, 585,110
Kandal Ta Khmau 3,568 0, 1,265,805
Kep Kep Town 336 0, 40,208
Koh Kong Koh Kong 11,160 0, 139,722
Kratié Kratié 11,094 0, 318,523
Mondulkiri Senmonorom 14,288 0, 60,811
Oddar Meanchey Samraong 6,158 0, 185,443
Pailin Pailin 803 0, 70,482
Phnom Penh Phnom Penh 758 0, 2,234,566
Preah Sihanouk Sihanoukville 868 0, 199,902
Preah Vihear Tbeng Meanchey 13,788 0, 170,852
Pursat Pursat 12,692 0, 397,107
Prey Veng Prey Veng 4,883 0, 947,357
Ratanakiri Banlung 10,782 0, 149,997
Siem Reap Siem Reap 10,229 0, 896,309
Stung Treng Stung Treng 11,092 0, 111,734
Svay Rieng Svay Rieng 2,966 0, 482,785
Takéo Takéo 3,563 0, 843,931
KhmerProvinces2.png

[ sunting ] Ekonomi

OCIC Tower , the first skyscraper in Cambodia
Rice cropping plays an important role in the economy

In 2010 Cambodia's per capita income in PPP is $2,470 and $1,040 in Nominal Per Capita. Cambodia's per capita income is rapidly increasing but is low compared to other countries in the region. Most rural households depend on agriculture and its related sub-sectors. Rice, fish, timber, garments and rubber are Cambodia's major exports. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) reintroduced more than 750 traditional rice varieties to Cambodia from its rice seed bank in the Philippines . [ 53 ] These varieties had been collected in the 1960s.


Based on the Economist, IMF: Annual average GDP growth for the period 2001–2010 was 7.7% making it one of the world's top ten countries with the highest Annual average GDP growth. Tourism was Cambodia's fastest growing industry, with arrivals increasing from 219,000 in 1997 to 2 million in 2007. In 2004, inflation was at 1.7% and exports at $1.6 billion US$. As of 2005, GDP per capita in PPP terms was $2,200, which ranked 178th (out of 233) countries. [ 54 ]

China is Cambodia's biggest source of foreign direct investment in the kingdom. China plans to spend $8 billion in 360 projects in the first seven months of 2011. It is also the largest source of foreign aid, providing about $600 million in 2007 and $260 million in 2008.

The older population often lacks education, particularly in the countryside, which suffers from a lack of basic infrastructure . Fear of renewed political instability and corruption within the government discourage foreign investment and delay foreign aid, although there has been significant aid from bilateral and multilateral donors. Donors pledged $504 million to the country in 2004, [ 55 ] while the Asian Development Bank alone has provided $850 million in loans, grants, and technical assistance. [ 56 ]

[ edit ] Tourism

The tourism industry is the country's second-greatest source of hard currency after the textile industry. [ 43 ] Between January and December 2007, visitor arrivals were 2.0 million, an increase of 18.5% over the same period in 2006. Most visitors (51%) arrived through Siem Reap with the remainder (49%) through Phnom Penh and other destinations. [ 57 ] Other tourist destinations include Sihanoukville in the south east which has several popular beach resorts and the area around Kampot and Kep including the Bokor Hill Station . Tourism has increased steadily each year in the relatively stable period since the 1993 UNTAC elections; in 1993 there were 118,183 international tourists, and in 2009 there were 2,161,577 international tourists. [ 58 ]

Most of the tourists were Japanese, Chinese, Americans, South Koreans and French people, said the report, adding that the industry earned some 1400 million US dollars in 2007, accounting for almost ten percent of the kingdom's gross national products. [ 59 ] Chinese-language newspaper Jianhua Daily quoted industry official as saying that Cambodia will have three million foreign tourist arrival in 2010 and five million in 2015. Tourism has been one of Cambodia's triple pillar industries. The Angkor Wat historical park in Siem Reap province, the beaches in Sihanoukville and the capital city Phnom Penh are the main attractions for foreign tourists. [ 60 ]

Panoramic view of Angkor Wat in Siem Reap . Today Angkor Wat is Cambodia's main tourist attraction and is visited by many visitors from around the world.

[ edit ] Demographics

Buddhism is the major religion in Cambodia
Cambodia's Population Pyramid in 2005

As of 2010, Cambodia has an estimated population of 14,805,358 people. Ninety percent of Cambodia's population is of Khmer origin and speak the Khmer language , the country's official language. Cambodia's population is relatively homogeneous. Its minority groups include Vietnamese (2,800,000), Chinese (1,180,000), Cham (317,000), and Khmer Loeu (550,000). [ 61 ] The country's birth rate is 25.4 per 1,000. Its population growth rate is 1.70%, significantly higher than those of Thailand, South Korea, and India. [ 62 ]

The Khmer language is a member of the Mon–Khmer subfamily of the Austroasiatic language group. French, once the language of government in Indochina , is still spoken by many older Cambodians. French is also the language of instruction in some schools and universities that are funded by the government of France. Cambodian French , a remnant of the country's colonial past, is a dialect found in Cambodia and is sometimes used in government. [ 63 ]

In recent decades, many younger Cambodians and those in the business-class have favoured learning English. In the major cities and tourist centers, English is widely spoken and taught at a large number of schools because of the overwhelming number of tourists from English-speaking countries. Even in the most rural outposts, most young people speak at least some English, as it is often taught by monks at the local pagodas where many children are educated.

The civil war and its aftermath have markedly affected the Cambodian population; 50% of the population is younger than 22 years old. At a 1.04 female to male ratio, Cambodia has the most female-biased sex ratio in the Greater Mekong Subregion. [ 64 ] In the Cambodian population over 65, the female to male ratio is 1.6:1. [ 55 ]

[ edit ] Religion

Buddhist Institute in Phnom Penh
Religion in Cambodia
Religion percent
Buddhism
94%
Islam
3.5%
Christianity
1.5%
Lain-lain
1%

Theravada Buddhism is the official religion of Cambodia, which is practiced by more than 94 percent of the population. The Theravada Buddhist tradition is widespread and strong in all provinces, with an estimated 4,392 temples throughout the country. [ 65 ] The vast majority of ethnic Khmers are Buddhist, and there is a close association between Buddhism, cultural traditions, and daily life. Adherence to Buddhism generally is considered intrinsic to the country's ethnic and cultural identity. Religion in Cambodia, including Buddhism, was suppressed by the Khmer Rouge during the late 1970s but has since experienced a revival.

Islam is the religion of the majority of the Chams and Malay minorities in Cambodia. The majority of Muslims are Sunnis of the Shafi'i school and are highly populated in Kampong Cham Province . Currently there are more than 300,000 Muslims in the country.

One percent of Cambodians are identified as being Christian; of this, Catholics make up the largest group followed by Protestants. There are currently 20,000 Catholics in Cambodia which represents only 0.15% of the total population. Other Christian denominations include Baptists , Methodists , Jehovah's Witnesses , and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints . [ 66 ]

Mahayana Buddhism is the religion of the majority of Chinese and Vietnamese in Cambodia. Elements of other religious practices, such as the veneration of folk heroes and ancestors, Confucianism , and Taoism mix with Chinese and Vietnamese Buddhism are also practiced.

[ edit ] Education

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is responsible for establishing national policies and guidelines for education in Cambodia. The Cambodian education system is heavily decentralised, with three levels of government, central, provincial and district – responsible for its management. The constitution of Cambodia promulgates free compulsory education for nine years, guaranteeing the universal right to basic quality education.

In 2004 it was estimated that 73.6% of the population was literate (84.7% of males and 64.1% of females). [ 67 ] Male youth age (15–24 years) have a literacy rate of 89% compared to 86% for females. [ 68 ]

The education system in Cambodia continues to face many challenges, but during the past years there have been significant improvements, especially in terms of primary net enrollment gains, the introduction of program based-budgeting, and the development of a policy framework which helps disadvantaged children to gain access to education. [ 69 ] Many of Cambodia's most acclaimed universities are based in Phnom Penh.

Traditionally, education in Cambodia was offered by the wats (Buddhist temples), thus providing education exclusively for the male population [ 70 ] During the Khmer Rouge regime, education suffered significant setbacks.

[ edit ] Health

The quality of health in Cambodia is rising. As of 2010, the life expectancy is 60 years for males and 65 years for females, a major improvement since 1999 when the average life expectancy was 49.8 and 46.8 respectively. [ 71 ] The Royal Cambodian Government plans to increase the quality of healthcare in the country by raising awareness of HIV/AIDS, malaria , and other diseases.

Cambodia's infant mortality rate has decreased from 115 per 1,000 live births in 1993 to 54 in 2009. In the same period, the under-five mortality rate decreased from 181 to 115 per 1,000 live births. [ 72 ] In the province with worst health indicators, Ratanakiri , 22.9% of children die before age five. [ 73 ]

UNICEF has designated Cambodia the third most landmined country in the world, [ 74 ] attributing over 60,000 civilian deaths and thousands more maimed or injured since 1970 because of the unexploded land mines left behind in rural areas. [ 75 ] The majority of the victims are children herding animals or playing in the fields. [ 74 ] Adults that survive landmines often require amputation of one or more limbs and have to resort to begging for survival. [ 75 ] However, the number of landmine casualties has sharply decreased, from 800 in 2005 to less than 400 in 2006 and 208 in 2007 (38 killed and 170 injured). [ 76 ]

[ sunting ] Budaya

The Royal Ballet of Cambodia in Paris, France 2010
Chhim Sothy's painting "Please let there be peace"

Various factors contribute to the Cambodian culture including Theravada Buddhism , Hinduism , French colonialism , Angkorian culture , and modern globalization . The Cambodian Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts is responsible for promoting and developing Cambodian culture. Cambodian culture not only includes the culture of the lowland ethnic majority, but also some 20 culturally distinct hill tribes colloquially known as the Khmer Loeu , a term coined by Norodom Sihanouk to encourage unity between the highlanders and lowlanders. Rural Cambodians wear a krama scarf which is a unique aspect of Cambodian clothing . The sampeah is a traditional Cambodian greeting or a way of showing respect to others. Khmer culture, as developed and spread by the Khmer empire , has distinctive styles of dance, architecture and sculpture, which have been exchanged with neighbouring Laos and Thailand through the history. Angkor Wat ( Angkor means "city" and Wat "temple") is the best preserved example of Khmer architecture from the Angkorian era along with hundreds of other temples that have been discovered in and around the region.

Traditionally, the Khmer people have a unique method of recording information on Tra leaves . Tra leaf books record legends of the Khmer people, the Ramayana, the origin of Buddhism and other prayer book series. They are greatly taken care of and wrapped in cloth to protect from moisture and the climate. [ 77 ]

Bon Om Teuk (Festival of Boat Racing), the annual boat rowing contest, is the most attended Cambodian national festival. Held at the end of the rainy season when the Mekong river begins to sink back to its normal levels allowing the Tonle Sap River to reverse flow, approximately 10% of Cambodia's population attends this event each year to play games, give thanks to the moon, watch fireworks, dine, and attend the boat race in a carnival-type atmosphere. [ 78 ] Popular games include cockfighting , soccer, and kicking a sey, which is similar to a footbag . Based on the classical Indian solar calendar and Theravada Buddhism, the Cambodian New Year is a major holiday that takes place in April. Recent artistic figures include singers Sinn Sisamouth and Ros Sereysothea (and later Meng Keo Pichenda ), who introduced new musical styles to the country.

Amok , a popular Khmer dish

[ edit ] Cuisine

Khmer New Year celebration.

Rice is the staple grain, as in other Southeast Asian countries. Fish from the Mekong and Tonle Sap rivers is also an important part of the diet. The supply of fish and fish products for food and trade in 2000 was 20 kilograms per person or 2 ounces per day per person. [ 79 ] Some of the fish can be made into prahok for longer storage. The cuisine of Cambodia contains tropical fruits, soups and noodles. Key ingredients are kaffir lime , lemon grass , garlic, fish sauce , soy sauce , curry , tamarind , ginger , oyster sauce , coconut milk and black pepper . Some delicacies are(????????) (Num Bunhjok), (?????) (Amok), (?????) (Ah Ping).

French influence on Cambodian cuisine includes the Cambodian red curry with toasted baguette bread. The toasted baguette pieces are dipped in the curry and eaten. Cambodian red curry is also eaten with rice and rice vermicelli noodles. Probably the most popular dine out dish, ka tieu , is a pork broth rice noodle soup with fried garlic, scallions , green onions that may also contain various toppings such as beef balls , shrimp , pork liver or lettuce. The cuisine is relatively unknown to the world compared to that of its neighbours Thailand and Vietnam.

[ edit ] Sports

Olympic Stadium in Phnom Penh

Football is one of the more popular sports, although professional organized sports are not as prevalent in Cambodia as in western countries because of the economic conditions. Football was brought to Cambodia by the French and became popular with the locals. [ 80 ] The Cambodia national football team managed fourth in the 1972 Asian Cup , but development has slowed since the civil war. Western sports such as volleyball, bodybuilding, field hockey, rugby union , golf, and baseball are gaining popularity. Native sports include traditional boat racing , buffalo racing, Pradal Serey , Khmer traditional wrestling and Bokator . Cambodia first participated in the Olympics during the 1956 Summer Olympic Games sending equestrian riders. Cambodia also hosted the GANEFO Games, the alternative to the Olympics, in the 1960s.

[ edit ] Dance

Cambodian dance can be divided into three main categories: Khmer classical dance , folk dance, and social dances.

[ edit ] Music

Traditional Cambodian music dates back as far as the Khmer Empire . Royal dances like the Apsara Dance are icons of the Cambodian culture. Popular types of dances are Romvong, commonly danced at festivals. The Classic Music Era of Cambodia was during the 1960s to the 1970s featuring notable singers Sinn Sisamouth and Ros Sereysothea . However, during the Khmer Rouge Revolution many classic and popular singers of the 60s and 70s died of execution, starvation, or overwork [ citation needed ] .

[ edit ] Internet

As Cambodia continues to grow, so does its connection to the world. There are numerous places where internet is available for public use, such as coffee shops, bars, restaurants and gas stations.

The increased connection to the internet has created the desire for more websites focused on Cambodia. Because of the literacy rate in Cambodia, the issue arises of whether Cambodia-focused sites need to be in English or Khmer. English is the predominant language of the internet, and the majority of internet users in Cambodia are able to understand English, but with the use of Khmer Unicode more sites have the capability to provide Khmer language versions.

[ edit ] Transport

National Highway 4

The civil war and neglect severely damaged Cambodia's transport system, but with assistance and equipment from other countries Cambodia has been upgrading the main highways to international standards and most are vastly improved from 2006. Most main roads are now paved.

Cambodia has two rail lines, totalling about 612 kilometers (380 mi) of single, one meter gauge track. [ 81 ] The lines run from the capital to Sihanoukville on the southern coast, and from Phnom Penh to Sisophon (although trains often run only as far as Battambang ). Currently only one passenger train per week operates between Phnom Penh and Battambang.

Besides the main interprovincial traffic artery connecting Phnom Penh with Sihanoukville, resurfacing a former dirt road with concrete / asphalt and implementation of 5 major river crossings by means of bridges have now permanently connected Phnom Penh with Koh Kong , and hence there is now uninterrupted road access to neighboring Thailand and their vast road system.

Cambodia's road traffic accident rate is high by world standards. In 2004, the number of road fatalities per 10,000 vehicles was ten times higher in Cambodia than in the developed world, and the number of road deaths had doubled in the preceding three years. [ 82 ]

The nation's extensive inland waterways were important historically in international trade. The Mekong and the Tonle Sap River, their numerous tributaries, and the Tonle Sap provided avenues of considerable length, including 3,700 kilometers (2,300 mi) navigable all year by craft drawing 0.6 meters (2 ft) and another 282 kilometers (175 mi) navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters (6 ft). [ 81 ] Cambodia has two major ports, Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville, and five minor ones. Phnom Penh, located at the junction of the Bassac , the Mekong, and the Tonle Sap rivers, is the only river port capable of receiving 8,000- ton ships during the wet season and 5,000-ton ships during the dry season. With increasing economic activity has come an increase in automobile and motorcycle use, though bicycles still predominate. [ 83 ] "Cyclo" (as hand-me-down French) or Cycle rickshaws are an additional option often used by visitors.

The country has four commercial airports. Phnom Penh International Airport (Pochentong) in Phnom Penh is the second largest in Cambodia. Siem Reap-Angkor International Airport is the largest and serves the most international flights in and out of Cambodia. The other airports are in Sihanoukville and Battambang .

[ edit ] See also

[ sunting ] Rujukan

  1. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1 . 2008 revision. United Nations . http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/cambodia/cambodia_economy.pdf . Retrieved March 12, 2009 .  
  2. ^ a b c d "Cambodia" . International Monetary Retrieved April 21, 2011 .  
  3. ^ "Distribution of family income – Gini index" . The World Factbook . CIA . https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html . Retrieved September 1, 2009 .  
  4. ^ "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G" . The United Nations . http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf . Retrieved October 5, 2009 .  
  5. ^ dictionary.reference.com : Cambodia
  6. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/culture/2010-08/03/c_13428465.htm
  7. ^ Cambodia to outgrow LDC status by 2020 | Business | The Phnom Penh Post – Cambodia's Newspaper of Record . The Phnom Penh Post (May 18, 2011). Retrieved on June 20, 2011.
  8. ^ Ek Madra (January 19, 2007). "Cambodia hopes to start oil production in 2009" . Reuters . http://www.reuters.com/article/companyNewsAndPR/idUSBKK30404620070119 . Retrieved March 6, 2009 .  
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