Perang di Darfur

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Konflik di Darfur
Tarikh 2003-2009 [1] / 2010 [2]
Lokasi Darfur , Sudan
Sedang berperang
Sudan JEM puak
Bandera Darfur.svg SLM (Minnawi puak)
Sudan LJM
Kononnya disokong oleh:
Chad
Eritrea [3] [4] [5] [6]
Sudan Janjaweed
Sudan Sudan Angkatan Bersenjata
Sudan Sudan Polis
Mercenaries asing
Kesatuan Afrika
Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu
Komander dan pemimpin
Sudan Khalil Ibrahim
Sudan Ahmed Diraige
Bandera Darfur.svg Minni Minnawi
Sudan Abdul Wahid al Nur
Sudan Omar al-Bashir
Sudan Musa Hilal
Sudan Hamid Dawai
Sudan Ali Kushayb
Sudan Ahmed Haroun [7]
Rodolphe Adada
Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu Martin Luther Agwai
Kekuatan
NRF / JEM: Unknown N / A 9065
Kecederaan dan kerugian
tidak diketahui tidak diketahui 51 pengaman membunuh
Perang di Darfur
Map of Darfur 2011.png
Timeline
Balas antarabangsa
UNMIS / Amis / UNAMID
ICC penyiasatan
Pejuang
SLM
JEM
LJM
Janjaweed
Barang-barang lain
Sejarah dari Darfur
Bibliografi

Konflik Darfur [13] [14] gerila konflik atau perang saudara yang berpusat di Darfur wilayah Sudan . Ia bermula pada bulan Februari 2003 apabila yang Pergerakan Pembebasan Sudan / Tentera (SLM / A) dan Keadilan dan Pergerakan Kesaksamaan (JEM) kumpulan di Darfur mengangkat senjata, menuduh kerajaan Sudan menindas bukan- Arab Sudan menyokong Sudan Arab . Ia juga dikenali sebagai Pembunuhan Darfur.

Sebelah konflik terdiri terutamanya Sudan rasmi tentera dan polis, dan Janjaweed , militia kumpulan 1 Sudan merekrut kebanyakannya dari Arabized Afrika asli dan beberapa Arab Badwi Rizeigat utara ; majoriti kumpulan Arab di Darfur yang lain kekal tidak terbabit dalam konflik tersebut. [15] pejuang lain yang dibuat kumpulan-kumpulan pemberontak, terutamanya SLM / A dan JEM, direkrut terutamanya daripada Islam Bulu bukan Arab , Zaghawa , dan kumpulan etnik Masalit . Walaupun kerajaan Sudan awam menafikan bahawa ia menyokong Janjaweed, ia telah menyediakan bantuan kewangan dan senjata kepada militia dan telah menganjurkan serangan bersama mensasarkan orang awam. [16] [17]

Terdapat pelbagai anggaran mengenai bilangan mangsa manusia yang antara dari seluruh kurang daripada 10,000. [18] untuk beberapa ratus ribu mati, dari pertempuran sama ada secara langsung atau kebuluran dan penyakit yang dialami oleh konflik. Terdapat juga telah anjakan yang besar-besaran dan migrasi paksaan, memaksa berjuta-juta ke dalam kem-kem pelarian atau lebih sempadan dan mewujudkan krisis kemanusiaan yang besar dan dianggap oleh ramai sebagai 1 pembunuhan beramai-ramai .

Kerajaan Sudan dan JEM menandatangani perjanjian gencatan senjata pada bulan Februari 2010, dengan perjanjian tentatif untuk mengejar keamanan lanjut. JEM tersebut yang paling banyak mendapat manfaat daripada rundingan dan dapat melihat semi-autonomi banyak seperti Sudan Selatan. [19] Walau bagaimanapun, ceramah telah terganggu dengan tuduhan bahawa tentera Sudan melancarkan serbuan dan serangan udara terhadap sebuah kampung, melanggar perjanjian Februari. JEM, kumpulan pemberontak terbesar di Darfur, berkata mereka akan memboikot rundingan lanjut. [20]

Senarai singkatan yang digunakan dalam rencana ini

AU: Kesatuan Afrika
DLF: Darfur Barisan Pembebasan
ICC: Mahkamah Jenayah Antarabangsa
IDP: Orang pelarian
JEM: Keadilan dan Pergerakan Kesaksamaan
SLM / A / A: Pergerakan Pembebasan Sudan / Tentera
SLM / A: Pergerakan Pembebasan Sudan
Spl: Tentera Pembebasan Sudan Rakyat
PBB: Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu
UNAMID: Misi Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu Kesatuan Afrika di Darfur
UNSC: Majlis Keselamatan Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu

Kandungan

[ sunting ] Garis masa

[ sunting ] Asal-usul konflik

Asal usul konflik kembali ke tanah pertikaian di antara ternakan herders kerap berpindah-randah dan mereka yang mengamalkan pertanian sedentari. [21]

Sejak penduduk Darfur adalah kebanyakannya Islam, konflik tidak mungkin hanya kira-kira bangsa atau agama, tetapi kira-kira sumber sebagai suku kaum nomad menghadapi kemarau akan selepas wilayah petani sedentari. [22]

[ sunting ] Dakwaan Aparteid Arab

Awal 1991 Arab yang orang Zaghawa Sudan mengadu bahawa mereka adalah mangsa 1 kempen apartheid Arab menggiatkan. [23] Sudan Arab, yang menguasai kerajaan, yang secara meluas dirujuk sebagai amalan aparteid terhadap warga bukan Arab Sudan. [24] kerajaan dituduh "dengan cekap manipulat (ing) Arab perpaduan" untuk menjalankan dasar apartheid dan pembersihan etnik terhadap orang bukan Arab di Darfur. [24]

Universiti Amerika ekonomi George Ayittey menuduh kerajaan Arab Sudan mengamalkan apartheid terhadap warga kulit hitam. [25] Menurut Ayittey, "Di Sudan ... kuasa Arab dimonopoli dan tidak termasuk kulit hitam - apartheid Arab" [26] Banyak pengulas Afrika menyertai ayittey menuduh Sudan mengamalkan apartheid Arab. [27] [28] [29] [30] [31]

Boston Globe kolumnis Fred Jacoby telah dituduh Sudan mengamalkan apartheid terhadap Kristian dalam apa adalah sekarang Selatan Sudan "di mana puluhan ribu hitam Afrika di wilayah selatan negara itu, kebanyakan mereka orang Kristian atau animis, telah telah diculik dan dijual kepada perhambaan oleh militia Arab disokong oleh rejim Islam di Khartoum. " [32] [33]

Alan Dershowitz telah menunjukkan ke Sudan sebagai contoh kerajaan bahawa "sebenarnya berhak mendapat (s)" gelaran "apartheid". [34] Lain-lain orang kenamaan yang menuduh rejim di Sudan mengamalkan "apartheid" terhadap orang bukan Arab termasuk bekas Kanada Menteri Keadilan Antequeruela Cotler . [35]

Penggunaan istilah "Arab" dan "Black" telah ditentang, kerana semua pihak yang terlibat dalam konflik Darfur-sama ada mereka yang dirujuk sebagai 'Arab' (terutamanya Baggara / Janjaweed ) atau sebagai 'Afrika' adalah sama asli. Kumpulan Janjaweed merekrut kebanyakannya dari Arabized pribumi Afrika / Baggara dan sedikit Arab Badwi Rizeigat utara ; manakala majoriti kumpulan Arab di Darfur masih tidak terbabit dalam konflik [15]

[ sunting ] Awal konflik

Titik permulaan konflik di rantau Darfur biasanya dikatakan 26 Februari 2003, apabila satu kumpulan yang menggelar diri mereka sebagai Barisan Pembebasan Darfur (DLF) awam mendakwa kredit bagi satu serangan ke atas Golo , Ibu Pejabat Daerah Jebel Marra . Malah sebelum serangan ini, bagaimanapun, konflik telah meletus di Darfur, sebagai pemberontak telah menyerang balai polis, tentera kota kara dan konvoi tentera, dan kerajaan telah terlibat dalam serangan udara besar-besaran dan tanah di kubu kuat pemberontak di Pergunungan Marrah . Tindakan pertama pemberontak tentera merupakan serangan yang berjaya pada 1 garrison tentera di atas gunung itu pada 25 Februari 2002 dan kerajaan Sudan telah sedar pergerakan pemberontak yang bersatu sejak serangan ke atas balai polis Golo pada bulan Jun 2002. Pembabad Julie Flint dan Alex de Waal menyatakan bahawa permulaan pemberontakan itu lebih baik bertarikh 21 Julai 2001, apabila sekumpulan Zaghawa dan Bulu bertemu di Abu Gamra dan bersumpah sumpah pada itu Al-Quran untuk bekerjasama untuk mempertahankan daripada tajaan kerajaan serangan ke atas kampung-kampung mereka. [36] Ia perlu diperhatikan bahawa hampir semua penduduk Darfur adalah beragama Islam, termasuk Janjaweed , serta pemimpin-pemimpin kerajaan di Khartoum . [37]

Pada 25 Mac 2003, pemberontak merampas bandar garison daripada Tine sepanjang sempadan Chadian, merampas sejumlah besar bekalan dan senjata. Di sebalik ancaman oleh Presiden Omar al-Bashir untuk "melepaskan" tentera, tentera mempunyai sedikit dalam simpanan. Tentera telah dikerahkan kedua-dua ke selatan, di mana Sudan Perang Saudara Kedua telah sampai ke penghujung, dan timur, di mana pemberontak yang ditaja oleh Eritrea mengancam saluran paip yang baru dibina dari kawasan minyak yang pusat ke Port Sudan . Taktik pemberontak langgar menjalankan serbuan untuk mempercepatkan seluruh rantau setengah padang pasir terbukti hampir mustahil untuk tentera, yang tidak terlatih dalam operasi padang pasir, untuk menentang. Walau bagaimanapun, pengeboman udara jawatan pemberontak di atas gunung adalah buruk. [38]

Jam 5.30 pagi pada 25 April 2003, bersama Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) dan Keadilan dan Kesaksamaan Movement (JEM) berkuat kuasa dalam 33 Land Cruiser memasuki al-Fashir dan menyerang garrison tidur. Dalam empat jam akan datang, empat pengebom Antonov dan gunships helikopter (mengikut kepada kerajaan; 7 mengikut pemberontak) telah dimusnahkan di atas tanah, 75 askar, juruterbang dan juruteknik terbunuh dan 32 ditangkap, termasuk komander pangkalan udara , Mejar Jeneral . Kejayaan serbuan itu adalah yang belum pernah berlaku di Sudan; dalam 20 tahun perang di selatan, pemberontak Tentera Pembebasan Sudan Rakyat (Spl) tidak pernah dijalankan operasi sedemikian [39]

[ sunting ] Janjaweed memasuki konflik (2003)

Serangan al-Faioyioshir adalah titik perubahan dari segi ketenteraan dan psikologi. Angkatan tentera telah dimalukan oleh serbuan al-Fashir dan kerajaan sedang berhadapan dengan situasi yang strategik yang sukar. Angkatan tentera jelas perlu dilatih semula dan ditempatkan untuk melawan seperti ini baru perang dan terdapat berasas kebimbangan tentang kesetiaan yang Darfurian yang tidak bertauliah pegawai dan askar dalam tentera. Tanggungjawab untuk mendakwa perang telah diberikan kepada perisikan tentera Sudan. Walau bagaimanapun, dalam bulan pertengahan 2003, pemberontak memenangi 34 38 pertunangan. Pada bulan Mei, SLA musnah, satu batalion pada ikan kutum , membunuh 500 dan mengambil 300 banduan; dan pada pertengahan bulan Julai, 250 terbunuh dalam serangan kedua ke atas Tine. SLA mula menyusup jauh ke timur, mengancam untuk melanjutkan perang ke Kordofan .

Walau bagaimanapun, pada peringkat ini kerajaan menukar strategi. Memandangkan bahawa tentera sedang konsisten dikalahkan, usaha peperangan bergantung kepada tiga elemen: perisikan tentera, tentera udara, dan yang Janjaweed , bersenjata Baggara herders mana kerajaan telah mula mengarah dalam penindasan Masalit kebangkitan 1986-1999. Janjaweed telah diletakkan di tengah-tengah kaunter-pemberontakan strategi baru . Walaupun kerajaan konsisten menafikan sokongan Janjaweed, sumber tentera telah disalurkan ke Darfur dan Janjaweed telah dilengkapi sebagai kuasa tentera, lengkap dengan peralatan komunikasi dan beberapa meriam. Para perancang ketenteraan doubtlessly sedar akibat kemungkinan strategi itu: kaedah yang sama yang dijalankan di Pergunungan Nuba dan di seluruh telaga minyak selatan semasa tahun 1990-an telah menyebabkan pelanggaran hak asasi manusia secara besar-besaran dan anjakan yang dipaksa . [40]

Janjaweed lebih baik bersenjata dengan cepat akhirnya berjaya. Oleh musim bunga tahun 2004, beberapa ribu orang - kebanyakannya daripada penduduk bukan Arab - telah terbunuh dan seramai sebagai juta lagi telah dihalau dari rumah mereka, menyebabkan krisis kemanusiaan di rantau ini. Krisis ini menjadi dimensi antarabangsa apabila lebih 100,000 pelarian mengalir masuk ke negara jiran, Chad , diteruskan oleh militia Janjaweed, yang bertempur dengan kuasa-kuasa kerajaan Chadian sepanjang sempadan. Lebih daripada 70 kumpulan bersenjata dan 10 askar Chadian terbunuh dalam satu senjata perang pada bulan April. Satu pasukan pemerhati Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu melaporkan bahawa kampung-kampung bukan Arab manakala kampung-kampung Arab telah ditinggalkan tanpa disentuh:

Desa yang hancur Ogos 2004

23 kampung Bulu di Unit Pentadbiran Shattaya telah mengusir sepenuhnya, dirompak dan dibakar untuk tanah (pasukan diperhatikan beberapa laman-laman tersebut memandu melalui kawasan tersebut selama dua hari). Sementara itu, bertitik bersama-lokasi yang hangus tanpa luka, penduduk dan berfungsi penempatan Arab. Di beberapa lokasi, jarak antara sebuah kampung Bulu dimusnahkan dan sebuah kampung Arab adalah kurang daripada 500 meter. [41]

Satu kajian 2011 dalam British Journal of Sosiologi, "yang disesarkan dan Ditindas daripada Darfur: Menjelaskan Sumber Genosid Berterusan Led Negeri," diperiksa 1,000 wawancara dengan peserta Hitam Afrika yang melarikan diri dari 22 kelompok kampung di Darfur kepada pelbagai kem-kem pelarian di 2003 dan 2004. Kajian mendapati bahawa: 1) kekerapan pendengaran julukan perkauman semasa serangan adalah 70% lebih tinggi apabila ia telah diketuai oleh yang Janjaweed sahaja berbanding dengan pasukan polis rasmi, ia adalah 80% lebih tinggi apabila Janjaweed dan Kerajaan Sudan menyerang bersama-sama, 2 ) Risiko anjakan adalah hampir 110% lebih tinggi semasa serangan bersama berbanding apabila polis atau Janjaweed bertindak sendirian, dan 85% lebih tinggi apabila pasukan Janjaweed menyerang sahaja berbanding ketika serangan itu hanya dilakukan oleh kuasa-kuasa Kerajaan Sudan; 3) Serangan ke atas makanan dan bekalan air yang dibuat 129% lebih cenderung untuk penduduk akan disesarkan berbanding dengan serangan bahawa pembakaran rumah yang terlibat atau membunuh orang; 4) Pesalah tahu dan mengambil "kelebihan istimewa" kerentanan penduduk Darfur kepada serangan yang memberi tumpuan kepada sumber asas. Kelemahan ini datang berlatar belakangkan peningkatan desertification serantau. [42]

[ sunting ] 2004-2005

Pada tahun 2004, Chad ditaja rundingan di N'Djamena , yang membawa kepada Perjanjian gencatan senjata April 8 Kemanusiaan antara kerajaan Sudan, JEM, dan SLA. Satu kumpulan yang tidak mengambil bahagian dalam April gencatan senjata ceramah atau perjanjian - Pergerakan untuk Pembaharuan dan Pembangunan Negara - sudah berpecah dari JEM pada bulan April. Serangan Janjaweed dan pemberontak berterusan walaupun gencatan senjata itu, dan Kesatuan Afrika (AU) telah menubuhkan sebuah Suruhanjaya gencatan senjata (CFC) untuk memantau pematuhan.

Pada bulan Ogos, Kesatuan Afrika menghantar 150 tentera Rwanda untuk melindungi memantau gencatan senjata. Ia, bagaimanapun, tidak lama lagi menjadi jelas bahawa 150 tentera tidak akan mencukupi, jadi mereka telah menyertai sebanyak 150 Nigeria tentera.

Pada 18 September, Majlis Keselamatan Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu telah mengeluarkan Resolusi 1564 mengisytiharkan bahawa kerajaan Sudan telah tidak dipenuhi komitmennya dan menyuarakan kebimbangan di serangan helikopter dan serangan oleh militia Janjaweed terhadap kampung-kampung di Darfur. Ia mengalu-alukan niat Kesatuan Afrika untuk meningkatkan misi pemantauan di Darfur dan menggesa semua negara anggota untuk menyokong usaha tersebut.

Semasa April 2005, selepas kerajaan Sudan menandatangani perjanjian gencatan senjata dengan Tentera Pembebasan Rakyat Sudan yang membawa kepada akhir Perang Saudara Sudan Kedua , Misi Kesatuan Afrika di Sudan berkuat kuasa telah meningkat sebanyak 600 tentera dan 80 pemerhati tentera. Pada bulan Julai, berkuat kuasa telah meningkat sebanyak lebih kurang 3,300 buah (dengan anggaran 220 juta dolar). Pada April 2005, Amis telah meningkat kepada kira-kira 7,000.

Skala krisis ini membawa kepada amaran bencana yang dekat dengan Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu Setiausaha Agung Annan Kofi amaran bahawa risiko pembunuhan beramai-ramai tampak tidak sebenar di Darfur. Skala kempen Janjaweed membawa kepada perbandingan dengan Genosid Rwanda , selari hangat dinafikan oleh kerajaan Sudan. Pemerhati bebas menyatakan bahawa itu taktik, termasuk putus dan pembunuhan daripada bukan askar, dan walaupun anak-anak muda dan bayi, adalah lebih mirip kepada yang pembersihan etnik yang digunakan di yang perang Yugoslavia dan memberi amaran bahawa terpencil di rantau ini bermakna bahawa beratus-ratus ribu orang telah berkesan dipotong kira daripada bantuan. Kumpulan Krisis Antarabangsa yang berpangkalan di Brussels- telah dilaporkan Mei 2004 bahawa lebih 350,000 orang berpotensi mati akibat kebuluran dan penyakit. [43]

Amis askar dari Rwanda bersedia untuk berlepas ke Darfur pada tahun 2005.

Pada 10 Julai 2005, Ex-Spl pemimpin John Garang mengangkat sumpah dalam sebagai presiden naib-Sudan. [44] Walau bagaimanapun, pada 30 Julai, Garang meninggal dunia dalam nahas helikopter 1. [45] kematian-Nya mempunyai implikasi jangka panjang dan, walaupun bertambah baik keselamatan, ceramah antara pemberontak di rantau Darfur maju perlahan-lahan.

Serangan ke atas bandar yang Chadian Adré berhampiran sempadan Sudan membawa kepada kematian 300 pemberontak pada bulan Disember. Sudan telah dipersalahkan kerana serangan itu, yang merupakan yang kedua di rantau ini dalam tiga hari. [46] ketegangan yang semakin meningkat di rantau ini membawa kepada kerajaan Chad mengisytiharkan permusuhan terhadap Sudan dan memanggil untuk rakyat Chadian untuk menggerakkan diri mereka daripada biasa " musuh ". [47] (Lihat konflik Chad-Sudan )

[ sunting ] Mei Perjanjian (2006)

Minni Minnawi telah diberikan peluang yang akhbar dengan Presiden Amerika Syarikat George W. Bush selepas menandatangani perjanjian Mei.

Pada 5 Mei 2006, kerajaan Sudan menandatangani satu perjanjian dengan puak SLA yang diketuai oleh Minni Minnawi . Bagaimanapun, perjanjian itu telah ditolak oleh dua yang lain, kumpulan-kumpulan kecil, Hakim dan Pergerakan Kesaksamaan dan puak yang bertelingkah SLA. [48] Perjanjian ini telah dirancang oleh Timbalan Setiausaha Amerika Syarikat , Robert B. Zoellick , Salim Ahmed Salim (bekerja Negeri bagi pihak Kesatuan Afrika ), AU wakil, dan lain-lain pegawai-pegawai asing yang beroperasi di Abuja , Nigeria. Ia menuntut pelucutan senjata militia Janjaweed, dan untuk pasukan pemberontak untuk bubar dan akan dimasukkan ke dalam tentera. [49] [50]

[ sunting ] Julai-Ogos 2006

Julai dan Ogos 2006 menyaksikan pertempuran diperbaharui, dengan pertubuhan-pertubuhan bantuan antarabangsa memandangkan meninggalkan disebabkan serangan terhadap kakitangan mereka. Kofi Annan dipanggil untuk penempatan 18,000 pasukan pengaman antarabangsa di Darfur untuk menggantikan kuasa Kesatuan Afrika 7000 ( Amis ). [51] [52] Dalam satu insiden di Kalma , tujuh wanita, yang meneroka keluar dari kem pelarian untuk mengumpul kayu api, telah geng dirogol, dipukul dan dirompak oleh Janjaweed. Apabila mereka telah selesai, penyerang dilucutkan mereka telanjang dan mengejek mereka sebagai mereka melarikan diri. [53] [54] [55]

Dalam satu mesyuarat swasta pada 18 Ogos, Hedi Annabi , Penolong Setiausaha Agung untuk Operasi keamanan , memberi amaran bahawa Sudan muncul bersedia untuk serangan tentera utama di Darfur. [56] amaran itu datang sehari selepas PBB Suruhanjaya Hak Asasi Manusia penyiasat khas sima samar menyatakan bahawa usaha Sudan di rantau ini kekal miskin walaupun Perjanjian Mei itu. [57] Pada 19 Ogos, Sudan mengulangi pembangkang yang menggantikan yang berkuat kuasa 7000 AU dengan 1 PBB 17000 1, [58] menyebabkan di Amerika Syarikat mengeluarkan satu ancaman " "Sudan lebih" potensi akibat "kedudukan ini. [59]

Pada 24 Ogos, Sudan menolak menghadiri 1 United Bangsa-Bangsa Keselamatan Majlis (UNSC) mesyuarat menjelaskan mengenai rancangan menghantar 10000 Sudan askar ke Darfur dan bukannya yang dicadangkan 20000 pengaman berkuat kuasa PBB. [60] The UNSC mengumumkan ia akan mengadakan mesyuarat itu walaupun bukan Sudan -kehadiran. [61] Juga pada 24 Ogos, Jawatankuasa Penyelamat Antarabangsa melaporkan bahawa beratus-ratus wanita diperkosa dan seksual di sekitar kem pelarian Kalma semasa beberapa minggu sebelumnya, [62] dan bahawa Janjaweed dilaporkan menggunakan rogol menyebabkan wanita untuk akan dihina dan dipulaukan. [63] Pada 25 Ogos, kepala yang AS Negeri Jabatan, Biro Hal Ehwal Afrika , Penolong Setiausaha Jendayi Frazer , memberi amaran bahawa rantau ini menghadapi 1 krisis keselamatan melainkan yang PBB dicadangkan pengaman berkuat kuasa telah dibenarkan untuk menggunakan. [ 64]

Pada 26 Ogos, dua hari sebelum mesyuarat UNSC dan pada hari Frazer adalah disebabkan tiba di Khartoum , Paul Salopek, wartawan Majalah National Geographic AS , muncul di mahkamah di Darfur menghadapi tuduhan daripada pengintipan, dia telah menyeberangi ke negara ini secara haram dari Chad, memintasi sekatan rasmi kerajaan Sudan pada wartawan asing. Beliau kemudiannya dibebaskan selepas rundingan terus dengan Presiden al-Bashir. [65] ini datang sebulan selepas Tomo Križnar , Slovenia utusan presiden, dijatuhi hukuman dua tahun penjara kerana mengintip. [66]

[ sunting ] New pengaman PBB yang dicadangkan berkuat kuasa

Pada 31 Ogos 2006,, UNSC meluluskan resolusi untuk menghantar pasukan baru 17300 rantau ini. [67] Sudan menyuarakan tentangan kuat terhadap resolusi tersebut. [68] Pada 1 September, pegawai Kesatuan Afrika melaporkan bahawa Sudan telah melancarkan utama menyinggung di Darfur, membunuh lebih daripada 20 orang dan menyesarkan lebih 1,000. [69] Pada 5 September, Sudan ditanya pasukan AU di Darfur untuk meninggalkan rantau ini menjelang akhir bulan ini, sambil menambah bahawa "mereka tidak mempunyai hak untuk memindahkan tugasan ini Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu atau mana-mana pihak lain. Ini betul bersandar dengan kerajaan Sudan. " [70] Pada 4 September, dalam langkah 1 tidak dilihat sebagai mengejutkan, Chad, presiden Idriss Déby menyuarakan sokongan bagi yang berkuat kuasa menjaga keamanan baru PBB. [71] AU, yang menjaga keamanan daya mandat yang tamat pada 30 September 2006, mengesahkan bahawa pasukan akan meninggalkan rantau ini. [72] Pada keesokan harinya, bagaimanapun, pegawai kanan Jabatan Negara Amerika Syarikat kepada pemberita bahawa berkuat kuasa AU mungkin kekal melepasi tarikh akhir. 73]

[ sunting ] Pelaksanaan (September 2006)

Pada 8 September, António Guterres , ketua yang Pesuruhjaya Bangsa-Bangsa Tinggi Bersatu bagi Pelarian , berkata Darfur yang dihadapi 1 "malapetaka kemanusiaan" [74] Pada 12 September, Sudan, Eropah Kesatuan utusan Pekka Haavisto mendakwa bahawa itu tentera Sudan telah "mengebom orang awam di Darfur " [75] World Food Program rasmi melaporkan bahawa bantuan makanan telah terputus daripada sekurang-kurangnya 355,000 orang di rantau ini. [76] Kofi Annan kepada UNSC bahawa "tragedi di Darfur telah mencapai saat yang kritikal. merit ini majlis perhatian terdekat dan tindakan segera. " [77]

Pada 14 September, pemimpin Gerakan Pembebasan Sudan, Minni Minnawi , menyatakan bahawa dia tidak membantah kepada pasukan pengaman Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu, dalam tentangan kepada pandangan bahawa atur yang akan menjadi suatu tindakan pencerobohan Barat kerajaan Sudan. Minnawi mendakwa bahawa yang berkuat kuasa AU "boleh berbuat apa-apa kerana itu mandat AU adalah sangat terhad". [78] Khartoum kekal tegas terhadap penglibatan PBB, dengan Sudan Presiden al-Bashir yang menggambarkan ia sebagai pelan 1 penjajah dan menyatakan bahawa "kita tidak tidak mahu Sudan bertukar menjadi lain Iraq . " [79]

[ sunting ] Kemerosotan (Oktober-November 2006)

Pada 2 Oktober, dengan pelan PBB daya digantung selama-lamanya kerana pembangkang Sudan, AU mengumumkan bahawa ia akan melanjutkan kehadirannya di rantau ini sehingga 31 Disember 2006. [80] [81] Dua ratus tentera PBB telah dihantar untuk membantu daya AU [82] Pada 6 Oktober, UNSC mengundi untuk melanjutkan mandat Misi Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu (PBB) di Sudan sehingga 30 April 2007. [83] Pada 9 Oktober, Pertubuhan Makanan dan Pertanian disenaraikan Darfur sebagai makanan kecemasan yang paling mendesak daripada 40 negara yang disenaraikan di Prospek Tanaman dan Makanan laporan Situasi [84] Pada 10 Oktober, Pesuruhjaya Tinggi PBB bagi Hak Asasi Manusia, Louise Arbour , mendakwa bahawa kerajaan Sudan mempunyai pengetahuan terlebih dahulu daripada serangan oleh militia Janjaweed dalam Buram, Darfur Selatan bulan sebelum ini, satu serangan yang menyaksikan beratus-ratus orang awam terbunuh. [85]

Kanak-kanak di kem-kem digalakkan untuk menghadapi parut psikologi mereka. Tokoh-tokoh tanah liat menggambarkan satu serangan oleh Janjaweed .

Pada 12 Oktober, Menteri Luar Nigeria Joy Ogwu tiba di Darfur untuk lawatan dua hari. Beliau menggesa kerajaan Sudan untuk menerima formula PBB. Bercakap di Ethiopia , Nigeria Presiden Olusegun Obasanjo berucap menentang "Pendirian [ing] dan lihat [ing] pembunuhan beramai-ramai sedang dibangunkan di Darfur." ??[86] Pada 13 Oktober, Presiden Amerika Syarikat George W. Bush mengenakan sekatan lanjut terhadap mereka yang dianggap bersubahat dalam kekejaman Darfur di bawah Keamanan Darfur dan Akta Akauntabiliti 2006. Langkah-langkah yang telah dikatakan untuk mengukuhkan sekatan sedia ada dengan melarang rakyat AS daripada terlibat dalam urusniaga berkaitan minyak Sudan (walaupun syarikat-syarikat AS telah dilarang daripada melakukan apa-apa perniagaan dengan Sudan sejak tahun 1997), membekukan aset pihak yang bersubahat dan menafikan mereka masuk ke Amerika Syarikat. [87]

Kekurangan misi AU pembiayaan dan peralatan bermakna bahawa kerja pekerja-pekerja bantuan di Darfur sangat terhad dengan pertempuran. Ada yang memberi amaran bahawa situasi kemanusiaan boleh merosot ke tahap yang dilihat pada tahun 2003 dan 2004, apabila pegawai PBB dipanggil Darfur krisis kemanusiaan paling teruk di dunia. [80]

Pada 22 Oktober, kerajaan Sudan kepada PBB utusan Jan Pronk untuk meninggalkan negara dalam masa tiga hari. Pronk, pegawai kanan PBB di negara ini, telah dikritik oleh tentera selepas dia mencatatkan perihal tentera baru-baru beberapa kekalahan di Darfur ke blog peribadi. [88] Pada 1 November, Amerika Syarikat mengumumkan bahawa ia akan merumuskan antarabangsa pelan yang berharap kerajaan Sudan akan mendapati lebih sedap rasanya. [89] Pada 9 November, kanan Sudan presiden penasihat Nafie Ali Nafie memberitahu pemberita bahawa kerajaan telah bersedia untuk memulakan rundingan tanpa syarat dengan Barisan Penebusan Kebangsaan (NRF) perikatan pemberontak, tetapi menyatakan dia melihat penggunaan sedikit untuk perjanjian damai yang baru. NRF, yang telah menolak Perjanjian Mei dan meminta perjanjian damai yang baru, tidak mengeluarkan komen. [90]

Pada akhir tahun 2006, Darfur Arab memulakan kumpulan pemberontak mereka sendiri, Angkatan Popular Askar, dan diumumkan pada 6 Disember bahawa mereka telah ditangkis satu serangan oleh tentera Sudan pada Kas-Zallingi hari sebelumnya. Dalam satu kenyataan, mereka yang dikenali sebagai tentera upahan Janjaweed yang tidak mewakili Arab Darfur itu. Mereka adalah terkini pelbagai Darfur Arab kumpulan telah mengumumkan penentangan mereka terhadap perang kerajaan sejak tahun 2003, sebahagian daripada yang telah menandatangani perjanjian politik dengan pergerakan pemberontak.

Tempoh yang sama melihat contoh perpecahan berasaskan suku dalam angkatan Arab apabila hubungan antara pertanian Terjem dan nomad, unta-penggembala Mahria puak-puak menjadi tegang. Pemimpin terjem telah menuduh Mahria menculik budak Terjem, dan pemimpin Mahria berkata Terjem telah mencuri binatang mereka. Ali Mahamoud Mohammed, wali atau gabenor, Selatan Darfur, menyatakan bahawa pergaduhan yang bermula pada Disember apabila yang Mahria menghalau unta-unta mereka ke selatan dalam migrasi bermusim, dipijak melalui wilayah Terjem berhampiran Sungai Bulbul . Pertempuran akan disambung semula pada bulan Julai 2007. [91]

[ sunting ] Cadangan kompromi PBB daya dan Sudan menyinggung

Pada 17 November, laporan potensi perjanjian untuk meletakkan "kompromi pengaman berkuat kuasa" di Darfur telah diumumkan, [92] tetapi kemudian akan muncul telah ditolak oleh Sudan. [93] PBB, namun, mendakwa pada 18 November bahawa Sudan telah bersetuju dengan penempatan pasukan pengaman PBB. [94] Menteri Luar Sudan, Lam Akol menyatakan bahawa "tidak harus ada ceramah tentang tenaga yang bercampur-campur" dan peranan PBB harus terhad kepada sokongan teknikal. Juga pada 18 November, AU melaporkan bahawa tentera Sudan dan militia yang disokong oleh Sudan-telah melancarkan operasi darat dan udara di rantau ini yang mengakibatkan kira-kira 70 kematian orang awam. AU menyatakan bahawa "adalah satu pelanggaran terang-terangan perjanjian keselamatan". [95]

Pada 25 November, seorang jurucakap bagi Pesuruhjaya Tinggi PBB bagi Hak Asasi Manusia menuduh kerajaan Sudan telah melakukan "serangan disengajakan dan diberangsangkan" terhadap orang awam di bandar Sirba pada 11 November, yang meragut nyawa sekurang-kurangnya 30 orang. Kenyataan Pesuruhjaya dikekalkan bahawa "bertentangan dengan tuntutan kerajaan, ia kelihatan bahawa yang Bersenjata Sudan Angkatan melancarkan 1 serangan sengaja dan tidak diberangsangkan kepada orang awam dan harta mereka di Sirba," dan bahawa ini juga terlibat "kemusnahan yang luas dan melampaui batas dan kecurian harta awam" [96]

[ sunting ] Januari - April 2007 gencatan senjata perjanjian dan pembubaran pesat

According to the Save Darfur Coalition , New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson and President al-Bashir have agreed to a cease-fire whereby the Sudanese "government and rebel groups will cease hostilities for a period of 60 days while they work towards a lasting peace." [ 97 ] In addition, the Save Darfur press release stated that the agreement "included a number of concessions to improve humanitarian aid and media access to Darfur." Despite the formality of a ceasefire there have been further media reports of killings and other violence. [ 98 ] [ 99 ] On Sunday 15 April 2007, African Union peacekeepers were targeted and killed. [ 100 ] The New York Times reported that "a confidential United Nations report says the government of Sudan is flying arms and heavy military equipment into Darfur in violation of Security Council resolutions and painting Sudanese military planes white to disguise them as United Nations or African Union aircraft." [ 101 ]

The violence has spread over the border to Chad . On 31 March 2007 Janjaweed militiamen killed up to 400 people in the volatile eastern border region of Chad near Sudan. The attack took place in the border villages of Tiero and Marena. The villages were encircled and then fired upon. Fleeing villagers were later subsequently chased. The women were robbed and the men shot according to the UNHCR . There were many who, despite surviving the initial attack, ended up dying due to exhaustion and dehydration, often while fleeing. [ 102 ]

On 14 April 2007, more attacks within Chad were reported by the UNHCR to have occurred again in the border villages of Tiero and Marena. [ 103 ] On 18 April President Bush gave a speech at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum criticizing the Sudanese government and threatened the use of sanctions if the situation does not improve. Sanctions would involve restriction of trade and dollar transactions with the Sudanese government and 29 Sudanese businesses. [ 104 ]

[ edit ] International Criminal Court charges

Sudan's humanitarian affairs minister, Ahmed Haroun , and a Janjaweed militia leader, known as Ali Kushayb , have been charged by the International Criminal Court with 51 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Ahmed Haroun said he "did not feel guilty," his conscience was clear, and that he was ready to defend himself. [ 105 ]

[ edit ] May 2007

Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir and Chad president Idriss Deby signed a peace agreement on 3 May 2007 aimed at reducing tension between their countries. [ 106 ] [ 107 ] The accord was brokered by Saudi Arabia. It sought to guarantee that each country would not be used to harbor, train or fund armed movements opposed to the government of the other. The Reuters News Service reported that "Deby's fears that Nouri 's UFDD may have been receiving Saudi as well as Sudanese support could have pushed him to sign the Saudi-mediated pact with Bashir on Thursday". Colin Thomas-Jensen, an expert on Chad and Darfur who works International Crisis Group think-tank has grave doubts as to whether "this new deal will lead to any genuine thaw in relations or improvement in the security situation". Additionally The Chadian rebel Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD) which has fought a hit-and-run war against Chad President Deby's forces in east Chad since 2006 stated that the Saudi-backed peace deal would not stop its military campaign. Thus the agreement may end up hurting the Sudanese rebels the most, leaving the Sudanese government with a freer hand. [ 108 ] Also in May, locations related to the conflict were added in Google Earth . [ 109 ]

[ edit ] June 2007

Oxfam announced on 17 June that it is permanently pulling out of Gereida, the largest camp in Darfur, where more than 130,000 have sought refuge. The agency cited inaction by local authorities from the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM), which controls the region, in addressing security concerns and violence against aid workers. An employee of the NGO Action by Churches Together was murdered in June in West Darfur. There have been ongoing hijackings of vehicles belonging to the UN and other international organizations—something that is also making them think twice about staying in the region. [ 110 ]

[ edit ] July 2007

BBC News reported that a huge underground lake has been found in the Darfur region. It is suggested that this find could help end the war as it could eliminate the existing competition for precious water resources. [ 111 ] France and Britain announced they would push for a UN resolution to dispatch African Union and United Nations peacekeepers to Darfur and would push for an immediate cease-fire in Darfur and are prepared to provide "substantial" economic aid "as soon as a cease-fire makes it possible." [ 112 ]

A 14 July 2007 article notes that in the past two months up to 75,000 Arabs from Chad and Niger crossed the border into Darfur. Most have been relocated by Sudanese government to former villages of displaced non-Arab people. [ 113 ]

The hybrid UN/AU force was finally approved on 31 July 2007 with the unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 . UNAMID will take over from AMIS by 31 December 2007 at the latest, and has an initial mandate up to 31 July 2008. [ 114 ]

On 31 July, the ongoing conflict between the Terjem and the Mahria tribes (former partners in the Janjaweed) heated up, with Mahria gunmen surrounding mourners at the funeral of an important Terjem sheik and killing 60 with rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) and belt-fed machine guns . [ 91 ]

[ edit ] August 2007

From 3 August 2007 until 5 August 2007, a conference was held in Arusha , Tanzania, to unite the different existing rebel groups to make the subsequent peace negotiations with the government of Sudan more streamlined. Most senior rebel leaders attended, with the notable exception of Abdul Wahid al Nur, who – while not in command of large forces, but a rather small splinter group of the SLA/M he initially founded in 2003 [ 115 ] — is considered to be the representatives of a large part of the displaced Fur people , and there have been concerns that his absence would be damaging to the peace talks. [ 116 ] International officials have stated that the difficulty lies in the fact that there is "no John Garang in Darfur", referring to the leader of the negotiating team of South Sudan , who was universally accepted by all the various South Sudanese splinter groups. [ 117 ]

The leaders who arrived on Friday were Gamali Galaleiddine, [ 118 ] Khalil Abdalla Adam, Salah Abu Surra, Khamis Abdallah Abakar, Ahmed Abdelshafi, Abdalla Yahya, Khalil Ibrahim (of the Justice and Equality Movement ) and Ahmed Ibrahim Ali Diraige. The schedule for Saturday consists of closed-door meetings between the AU-UN and rebel leaders, as well as between rebel leaders alone. [ 119 ] In addition to those eight, eight more arrived there late on 4 August (including Jar el-Neby, Salah Adam Isaac and Suleiman Marajan [ 120 ] ), whereas the SLM Unity faction also boycotted the talks as the Sudanese government had threatened to arrest Suleiman Jamous if he left the hospital. [ 121 ] The rebel leaders aimed to unify their positions and demands, which included compensation for the victims and autonomy for Darfur. [ 118 ] They eventually reached agreement on joined demands, including power and wealth sharing, security, land and humanitarian issues. [ 122 ]

In the several months up through August, Arab tribes that had worked together in the Janjaweed militia began falling out among themselves, and even further splintered into factions. Terjem fought Mahria as thousands of gunmen from each side traveled hundreds of miles to fight in the strategic Bulbul river valley. Farther south, Habanniya and Salamat tribes clashed. The fighting did not result in as much killing as in 2003 and 2004, the height of the violence. United Nations officials said the groups might be trying to seize land before UN and African Union peacekeepers arrived. [ 91 ]

[ edit ] September 2007

On 6 September 2007, the next round of peace talks was set to begin on 27 October 2007. [ 123 ] On 18 September 2007, JEM stated that if the peace talks with Khartoum should fail, they would step up their demands from self-determination to independence for the Darfur region. [ 124 ]

On 30 September 2007, the rebels overran an AMIS base, killing at least 12 peacekeepers in "the heaviest loss of life and biggest attack on the African Mission" during a raid at the end of Ramadan season. [ 125 ]

[ edit ] October 2007

SLM combatants

Peace talks started on 27 October 2007 in Sirte , Libya. The following groups attended the talks: [ 126 ]

  • Justice and Equality Movement splinters:
  • Revolutionary Democratic Forces Front, led by Salah Abu Surrah
  • United Revolutionary Force Front, led by Alhadi Agabeldour
  • Sudan Liberation Movement–G19, led by Khamees Abdullah
  • Sudan Federal Democratic Alliance, led by Ahmed Ibrahim Diraige

The following groups didn't attend:

  • Justice and Equality Movement , led by Khalil Ibrahim; they object to the presence of rebel groups they say had no constituency and no place at the table.
  • Sudan Liberation Movement (Abdel Wahed), led by Abdel Wahed Mohamed el-Nur; the group has few forces, but its leader is highly respected; refused to attend until a force was deployed to stem the Darfur violence.
  • Sudan Liberation Movement–Unity, originally led by Abdallah Yehya, includes many other prominent figures (Sherif Harir, Abu Bakr Kadu, Ahmed Kubur); the group with the largest number of rebel fighters; object for the same reason as JEM.
  • Ahmed Abdel Shafi, a notable rebel enjoying strong support from the Fur tribe .

Faced with a boycott from the most important rebel factions, the talks were rebranded as an "advanced consultation phase", with actual talks likely to start in November or December. [ 127 ]

[ edit ] November 2007

On 15 November, nine rebel groups – six SLM factions, the Democratic Popular Front, the Sudanese Revolutionary Front and the Justice and Equality Movement–Field Revolutionary Command – signed a Charter of Unification and agreed to operate under the name of SLM/A henceforth. [ 128 ] On 30 November it was announced that Darfur's rebel movements had united into two large groups and were now ready to negotiate in an orderly structure with the government. [ 129 ]

[ edit ] February 2008

A fresh Sudanese offensive by government soldiers and Arab militiamen against Darfur rebels trapped thousands of refugees along the Chadian border, the rebels and humanitarian workers said 20 February 2008. [ 130 ] As of 21 February, the total dead in Darfur stood at 450,000 with an estimated 3,245,000 people displaced.

[ edit ] May 2008

On 10 May 2008 Sudanese government soldiers and Darfur rebels clashed in the city of Omdurman , opposite the capital of Khartoum , over the control of a military headquarters. [ 131 ] They also raided a police base from which they stole police vehicles. A Sudanese police spokesperson said that the leader of the assailants, Mohamed Saleh Garbo, and his intelligence chief, Mohamed Nur Al-Deen, were killed in the clash.

Witnesses said that heavy gunfire could be heard in the west of Sudan's capital. Sudanese troops backed by tanks, artillery, and helicopter gunships were immediately deployed to Omdurman, and fighting raged for several hours. After seizing the strategic military airbase at Wadi-Sayedna, the Sudanese soldiers eventually defeated the rebels. A JEM force headed to the Al-Ingaz bridge to cross the White Nile into Khartoum, but was repulsed forces. By late afternoon, Sudanese TV claimed that the rebels had been "completely repulsed", while showing live images of burnt vehicles and corpses on the streets. [ 132 ]

The government imposed a curfew in Khartoum from 5 pm to 6 am, and aid agencies told their workers living in the capital to stay indoors.

Some 93 soldiers and 13 policemen were killed along with 30 civilians in the attack on Khartoum and Omdurman. Sudanese forces confirmed that they found the bodies of 90 rebels and had spotted dozens more strewn outside the city limits. While Sudanese authorities claimed that up to 400 rebels could have been killed, the rebels stated that they lost 45 fighters dead or wounded. Sudanese authorities also claimed to have destroyed 40 rebel vehicles and captured 17.

[ edit ] August 2009

General Martin Agwai, head of the joint African Union-United Nations mission in Darfur, said the war was over in the region, although low-level disputes remain. There is still "Banditry, localised issues, people trying to resolve issues over water and land at a local level. But real war as such, I think we are over that," he said. [ 133 ]

[ edit ] Doha peace forum (December 2010 to Present)

In December 2010, representatives of the Liberation and Justice Movement , an umbrella organisation of ten rebel groups formed in February 2010, [ 134 ] started a fresh round of talks with the Sudanese Government in Doha , Qatar. A new rebel group, the Sudanese Alliance Resistance Forces in Darfur, was also formed, and the Justice and Equality Movement planned further talks. [ 135 ] The talks ended on 19 December without a new peace agreement but basic principles were agreed upon; these included a regional authority and a referendum on autonomy for Darfur. The possibility of a Darfuri Vice-President was also discussed. [ 136 ] [ 137 ]

In January 2011, the leader of the Liberation and Justice Movement, Dr. Tijani Sese , stated that the movement had accepted the core proposals of the Darfur peace document proposed by the joint-mediators in Doha. The proposals included a $300,000,000 compensation package for victims of atrocities in Darfur and special courts to conduct trials of persons accused of human rights violations. Proposals for a new Darfur Regional Authority were also included, this authority would have an executive council of 18 ministers and would remain in place for five years. The current three Darfur states and state governments would also continue to exist during this period. [ 138 ] [ 139 ] In February, the Sudanese Government rejected the idea of a single region headed by a vice-president from the region. [ 140 ]

On 29 January, the leaders of the Liberation and Justice Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement issued a joint statement affirming their commitment to the Doha negotiations and intention to attend the Doha forum on 5 February. The Sudanese government postponed deciding whether to attend the forum on that date due to beliefs that an internal peace process without the involvement of rebel groups might be possible. [ 141 ] Later in February, the Sudanese Government agreed to return to the Doha peace forum with a view to complete a new peace agreement by the end of that month. [ 142 ] On 25 February, both the Liberation and Justice Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement announced that they had rejected the peace document proposed by the mediators in Doha. The main sticking points were the issues of a Darfuri vice-president and compensation for victims. The Sudanese government did not comment on the peace document. [ 143 ]

On 9 March, it was announced that two more states would be established in Darfur: Central Darfur around Zalingei and Eastern Darfur around Ed Daein . The rebel groups protested and stated that this was a bid to further divide Darfur's influence. [ 144 ]

Advising both the LJM and JEM during the Doha peace negotiations was the Public International Law & Policy Group (PILPG). Led by Dr. Paul Williams and Matthew T. Simpson , PILPG's team provided on the ground legal support with regard to the substantive issues in the peace process.

In June, a new Darfur Peace Agreement (2011) was proposed by the Joint Mediators at the Doha Peace Forum. This agreement was to supersede the Abuja Agreement of 2005 and when signed, would halt preparations for a Darfur status referendum. [ 145 ] The proposed document included provisions for a Darfuri Vice-President and an administrative structure that includes both three states and a strategic regional authority, the Darfur Regional Authority , to oversee Darfur as a whole. [ 146 ] The agreement was signed by the Government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement on 14 July 2011. [ 147 ]

[ edit ] Mortality figures

A mother with her sick baby at Abu Shouk IDP camp in North Darfur

Sudanese authorities claim a death toll of roughly 10,000 civilians. [ 148 ]

In September 2004, the World Health Organization estimated there had been 50,000 deaths in Darfur since the beginning of the conflict, an 18-month period, mostly due to starvation . An updated estimate the following month put the number of deaths for the 6-month period from March to October 2004 due to starvation and disease at 70,000; These figures were criticized, because they only considered short periods and did not include deaths from violence. [ 149 ] A more recent British Parliamentary Report has estimated that over 300,000 people have died, [ 150 ] and others have estimated even more.

In March 2005, the UN's Emergency Relief Coordinator Jan Egeland estimated that 10,000 were dying each month excluding deaths due to ethnic violence. [ 151 ] An estimated 2.7 million people had at that time been displaced from their homes, mostly seeking refuge in camps in Darfur's major towns. [ 152 ] Two hundred thousand had fled to neighboring Chad. Reports of violent deaths compiled by the UN indicate between 6,000 and 7,000 fatalities from 2004 to 2007. [ 153 ]

In May 2005, the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) of the School of Public Health of the Université catholique de Louvain in Brussels, Belgium published an analysis of mortality in Darfur. Their estimate stated that from September 2003 to January 2005, between 98,000 and 181,000 persons had died in Darfur, including from 63,000 to 146,000 excess deaths. [ 154 ]

On 28 April 2006, Dr. Eric Reeves argued that "extant data, in aggregate, strongly suggest that total excess mortality in Darfur, over the course of more than three years of deadly conflict, now significantly exceeds 450,000," but this has not been independently verified. [ 155 ]

The UN disclosed on 22 April 2008 that it might have underestimated the Darfur death toll by nearly 50%. [ 156 ]

In July 2009, the Christian Science Monitor published an op-ed stating that many of the published mortality rates have been misleading because they include a large number of people who have died of disease and malnutrition, as well as those who have died from direct violence. Therefore, when activist groups make statements indicating that "four hundred thousand people have been killed ," they are misleading the public. [ 157 ]

In January 2010, The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters published an article in a special issue of The Lancet . The article, entitled Patterns of mortality rates in Darfur Conflict , [ 8 ] estimated, with 95% confidence, that the excess number of deaths is between 178,258 and 461,520 (the mean being 298,271), with 80% of these due to diseases. [ 158 ] 51 International peacekeepers have been killed in Darfur. [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] International response

International attention to the Darfur conflict largely began with reports by the advocacy organizations Amnesty International in July 2003 and the International Crisis Group in December 2003. However, widespread media coverage did not start until the outgoing United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Sudan, Mukesh Kapila , called Darfur the "world's greatest humanitarian crisis" in March 2004. [ 159 ] Organizations such as STAND: A Student Anti-Genocide Coalition , later under the umbrella of Genocide Intervention Network , and the Save Darfur Coalition emerged and became particularly active in the areas of engaging the United States Congress and President on the issue and pushing for divestment nationwide, initially launched by Adam Sterling under the auspice of the Sudan Divestment Task Force. Particularly strong advocates have additionally included: New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof , Sudan scholar Eric Reeves , Enough Project founder John Prendergast , Pulitzer Prize -winning author Samantha Power , photographers Ryan Spencer Reed , former Marine Brian Steidle , actress Mia Farrow and her son Ronan Farrow , Olympian Joey Cheek , actress Angelina Jolie , actors George Clooney , and Don Cheadle , actor Jonah Hill , actress Salma Hayek , Save Darfur Coalition 's David Rubenstein, Slovenian humanitarian Tomo Kriznar, and all of those involved with the Genocide Intervention Network . A movement advocating for humanitarian intervention has emerged in several countries.

[ edit ] International Criminal Court

In March 2005, the Security Council formally referred the situation in Darfur to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, taking into account the report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, authorized by UN Security Council Resolution 1564 of 2004, but without mentioning any specific crimes. [ 160 ] Two permanent members of the Security Council, the United States and China , abstained from the vote on the referral resolution. [ 161 ]

In April 2007, the Judges of the ICC issued arrest warrants against the former Minister of State for the Interior, Ahmed Haroun , and a Janjaweed leader, Ali Kushayb , for crimes against humanity and war crimes. [ 162 ] The Sudan Government said that the ICC had no jurisdiction to try Sudanese citizens and that it would not hand the two men over to authorities in the Hague. [ 163 ]

On 14 July 2008, the Prosecutor filed ten charges of war crimes against Sudan's incumbent President Omar al-Bashir , three counts of genocide, five of crimes against humanity and two of murder. The Prosecutor has claimed that Mr. al-Bashir "masterminded and implemented a plan to destroy in substantial part" three tribal groups in Darfur because of their ethnicity. Leaders from three Darfur tribes are suing ICC prosecutor Luis-Moreno Ocampo for libel, defamation, and igniting hatred and tribalism. [ 164 ]

After an arrest warrant was issued for the Sudanese president in March 2009, the Prosecutor appealed to have the genocide charges added. However, the Pre-Trial Chamber found that there was no reasonable ground to support the contention that he had a specific intent to commit genocide ( dolus specialis ), which is an intention to destroy, in whole or in part, a protected group. The definition adopted by the Pre-Trial Chamber is the definition of the Genocide Convention, the Rome Statute, and some ICTY cases. On 3 February 2010 the Appeals Chamber of the ICC found that the Pre-Trial Chamber had applied "an erroneous standard of proof when evaluating the evidence submitted by the Prosecutor" and that the Prosecutor's application for a warrant of arrest on the genocide charges should be sent back to the Pre-Trial Chamber to review based on the correct legal standard. [ 165 ] In July, 2010, Sudan 's president Omar al-Bashir was finally charged by Hague for orchestrating Darfur genocide, three counts of genocide in Darfur by the International Criminal Court . [ 166 ]

Mr. al-Bashir is now the first incumbent head of state charged with crimes in the Rome Statute. [ 167 ] Bashir has rejected the charges and said, "Whoever has visited Darfur, met officials and discovered their ethnicities and tribes ... will know that all of these things are lies." [ 168 ]

It is expected that al-Bashir will not face trial in The Hague until he is apprehended in a nation which accepts the ICC's jurisdiction, as Sudan is not a state party to the Rome Statute which it signed but didn't ratify. [ 169 ] Payam Akhavan, a professor of international law at McGill University in Montreal and a former war crimes prosecutor, says although he may not go to trial, "He will effectively be in prison within the Sudan itself...Al-Bashir now is not going to be able to leave the Sudan without facing arrest." [ 170 ] The Prosecutor has publicly warned that authorities could arrest the President if he enters international airspace. The Sudanese government has announced the Presidential plane will be accompanied by jet fighters. [ 171 ] However, the Arab League has announced its solidarity with al-Bashir. Since the warrant, he has visited Qatar and Egypt . Both countries have refused to arrest him. The African Union also condemned the arrest warrant.

Some analysts think that the ICC indictment is counterproductive and harms the peace process. Only days after the ICC indictment, al-Bashir expelled 13 international aid organizations from Darfur and disbanded three domestic aid organizations. [ 172 ] In the aftermath of the expulsions, conditions in the displaced camps deteriorated, [ 173 ] and women were particularly affected. [ 174 ] Previous ICC indictments, such as the arrest warrants of the LRA leadership in the ongoing war at northern Uganda, were also accused of harming peace processes by criminalizing one side of a war. Some believe that the arrest warrant against al-Bashir will hinder the efforts to establish peace in Darfur, and will undermine any effort to boost stability in Sudan. [ 175 ]

[ edit ] Russian and Chinese undermining of sanctions

Amnesty International issued a report [ 176 ] [ 177 ] [ 178 ] accusing Russia and the People's Republic of China of supplying arms, ammunition and related equipment to Sudan. This hardware has been transferred to Darfur for use by the government and the Janjaweed militias and thus violating a UN arms embargo against Darfur. In its report it showed a photo of Chinese-made Fantan fighters that have been seen at Nyala , Darfur and a Ukrainian Antonov-26 aircraft (painted white). The report provided evidence (including eyewitness testimony) that the Sudan Air Force has been conducting a pattern of indiscriminate aerial bombings of villages in Darfur and eastern Chad using ground attack jet fighters and Antonov planes. The report contained an image of a Russian made Mi-24 attack helicopter (reg. n° 928) at Nyala airport in Darfur in March 2007. For several years the Sudan Air Force has used this type of attack helicopter for operations during Janjaweed attacks on villages in Darfur. The report also showed evidence that the government has been camouflaging military aircraft and helicopters by painting them white and in doing so, tried to cover up their military use by claiming that they were civilian in nature. The white Antonov-26 aircraft was reported to have been used in Darfur in bombing missions. Recently it has been confirmed by Airforces Monthly Magazine for June 2007, that China and Iran have financed and delivered "newer" aircraft for Sudan. The most recent additions have been 15–20 A-5 Fantan ground attack aircraft. Also confirmed by Airforces Monthly is the use of Mil Mi-24 Hind gunships and Mil Mi-171 Assault Helicopters. They have been photographed painted in UN markings and white color for disguised use in illegal attack missions into the Darfur Region. The base in which they have been seen is at Nyala Airport in the Darfur Region. 8 Hinds have been confirmed operating in the Darfur region. One An-26 transport has been also confirmed delivered from a Russian civil aviation corporation. This aircraft is modified with bomb racks, and painted in UN white for illegal bombing missions into Darfur. The aircraft serial 7705 is used, but actually confirmed as 26563. Training for Sudanese crew has recently been confirmed to have been conducted and ongoing at Dezful-Ardestani Air Base in southern Iran. China and Russia denied they had broken UN sanctions. China has a close relationship with Sudan and increased its military co-operation with the government in early 2007. Because of Sudan's plentiful supply of oil, China considers good relations with Sudan to be a strategic necessity that is needed to fuel its booming economy. [ 179 ] [ 180 ] [ 181 ] China also has direct commercial interests in Sudan's oil. China's state-owned company CNPC controls between 60 and 70 percent of Sudan's total oil production. Additionally, it owns the largest single share (40 percent) of Sudan's national oil company, Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company. [ 182 ] [ 183 ] [ 184 ] China has also consistently opposed economic and non-military sanctions on Sudan. [ 185 ] [ 186 ] [ 187 ] [ 188 ]

Recently, however, a 2007 Small Arms Survey research paper suggested that China may be changing its stance on Darfur due to international pressure. [ 189 ]

[ edit ] Criticism of international response

The Save Darfur Coalition advocacy group coordinated a large rally in New York in April 2006

Omar Al Bashir has sought the assistance of numerous non western countries after the West, led by America, imposed sanctions against him, he said- "From the first day, our policy was clear: To look eastward, toward China, Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and even Korea and Japan, even if the Western influence upon some [of these] countries is strong. We believe that the Chinese expansion was natural because it filled the space left by Western governments, the United States, and international funding agencies. The success of the Sudanese experiment in dealing with China without political conditions or pressures encouraged other African countries to look toward China." [ 190 ]

Gérard Prunier , a scholar specializing in African conflicts, argued that the world's most powerful countries have largely limited themselves in expressing concerns and demand for the United Nations to take action in solving the genocide in Darfur. The UN, lacking both the funding and military support of the wealthy countries, has left the African Union to deploy a token force (AMIS) without a mandate to protect civilians. In the lack of foreign political will to address the political and economic structures that underlie the conflict, the international community has defined the Darfur conflict in humanitarian assistance terms and debated the label of "genocide." [ 159 ]

On 16 October 2006, Minority Rights Group (MRG) published a critical report, challenging that the UN and the great powers could have prevented the deepening crisis in Darfur and that few lessons appear to have been drawn from their ineptitude during the Rwandan Genocide . MRG's executive director, Mark Lattimer, stated that: "this level of crisis, the killings, rape and displacement could have been foreseen and avoided ... Darfur would just not be in this situation had the UN systems got its act together after Rwanda: their action was too little too late." [ 191 ] On 20 October 120 genocide survivors of The Holocaust , and the Cambodian and Rwandan Genocides, backed by six aid agencies, submitted an open letter to the European Union, calling on them to do more to end the atrocities in Darfur, with a UN peacekeeping force as "the only viable option." Aegis Trust director, James Smith, stated that while "the African Union has worked very well in Darfur and done what it could, the rest of the world hasn't supported those efforts the way it should have done with sufficient funds and sufficient equipment." [ 192 ]

Human Rights First claimed that over 90% of the light weapons currently being imported by Sudan and used in the conflict are from China; [ 193 ] however, according to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)'s "Arms Transfers Data for 2007", in 2003–2007, Sudan received 87 per cent of its major conventional weapons from Russia and 8 per cent from China. [ 194 ] Human rights advocates and opponents of the Sudanese government portray China's role in providing weapons and aircraft as a cynical attempt to obtain oil just as colonial powers once supplied African chieftains with the military means to maintain control as they extracted natural resources. [ 195 ] [ 196 ] [ 197 ] According to China's critics, China has offered Sudan support threatening to use its veto on the UN Security Council to protect Khartoum from sanctions and has been able to water down every resolution on Darfur in order to protect its interests in Sudan. [ 198 ] Accusations of the supply of weapons from China, violating the UN arms embargo , continue to arise. [ 199 ]

Amnesty International slammed Russia for breaking the UN arms embargo on Darfur, Russians sold weapons like Mi-24 helicopters, Anntonov 26 planes, Russian weapons sales to Sudan totaled 21 million dollars. It was reported these weapons were used to slaughter Darfur civilians. The report said Russia "cannot have been unaware of reports of serious violations of human rights and humanitarian law by the Sudanese security forces, But they have nevertheless continued to allow military equipment to be sent to Sudan." Russia was reported to "have been or should have been aware, several types of military equipment, including aircraft, have been deployed by the Sudanese armed forces for direct attacks on civilians and indiscriminate attacks in Darfur". The Russian planes were disguised as UN Planes which violate the Geneva Conventions. The Janjaweed also used Russian small arms to murder and loot, these Russian weapons spread into neighboring Chad. In 2005 helicopters from Russia were sold to Sudan for 7 million pounds sterling. Photos show Russian helicopters in Darfur. [ 200 ] [ 201 ] [ 202 ]

The US-funded Civilian Protection Monitoring Team, which investigates attacks in southern Sudan concluded that "as the Government of Sudan sought to clear the way for oil exploration and to create a cordon sanitaire around the oil fields, vast tracts of the Western Upper Nile Region in southern Sudan became the focus of extensive military operations." [ 203 ] However, experts say the Darfur region is unlikely to hold significant oil reserves. [ 204 ] Sarah Wykes , a senior campaigner at Global Witness , an NGO that campaigns for better natural resource governance, says: "Sudan has purchased about $100m in arms from China and has used these weapons against civilians in Darfur." [ 196 ]

In March 2007, threats of boycotting the Olympic games came from French presidential candidate François Bayrou , in an effort to stop China's support to the Sudanese government in the war. [ 205 ] There were also calls for boycotts from actor and UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Mia Farrow , Genocide Intervention Network Representative Ronan Farrow , [ 206 ] author and Sudan scholar Eric Reeves [ 207 ] and the Washington Post editorial board. [ 208 ] [ 209 ] Sudan divestment efforts have also concentrated on PetroChina , the national petroleum company with extensive investments in Sudan. [ 210 ]

In May 2009 the Mandate Darfur was canceled because the "Sudanese government is obstructing the safe passage of Darfurian delegates from Sudan." [ 211 ] The Mandate was a conference that would have brought together 300 representatives from different regions of the civil society of Darfur. [ 211 ] The conference planned was to be held in Addis Ababa sometime in early May.

[ sunting ] Lihat juga

[ sunting ] Rujukan

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